NOAA Teacher at Sea
Aboard USFWS R/V Tiglax
September 11-25, 2019
Mission: Northern Gulf of Alaska Long-Term Ecological Research project
Geographic Area of Cruise: Northern Gulf of Alaska – currently sampling along the Seward line.
Date: September 16, 2019
Weather Data from the Bridge:
Wind: North 12 knots
Air Temperature: 16ºC (61ºF)
Air Pressure: 1001 millibars
Science and Technology Log
The Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) study focuses on ecosystem dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Alaska (NGA) and how the complex processes of abiotic factors, such as ocean salinity, temperature, currents, and trace metals influence primary productivity of phytoplankton. The project examines how efficiently this energy is transferred, in turn, to higher trophic levels, from zooplankton to vertebrates, such as fish, seabirds and marine mammals.
Over the past twenty years, seabird and marine mammal observations have been an important component of the LTER study. Approximately 50 species of birds inhabit the NGA either year-round or seasonally, with a variety of foraging behaviors and diets. Through the LTER, we can learn about how physical and biological oceanographic processes influence the distribution and abundance of higher trophic levels, such as seabirds.
Dr. Kathy Kuletz with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is the lead scientist for the seabird part of the research program. Dan Cushing is the seabird and marine mammal observer aboard R/V Tiglax. He holds a master’s degree in wildlife science and has a wealth of experience in birding both on and offshore. This fall cruise marks Dan’s eleventh cruise observing in the NGA. Whenever the R/V Tiglax is underway, Dan can be found on the flying bridge collecting data.
Observations are made using a protocol established through the USFWS. Dan records survey data using a computer on the flying bridge that records both time and GPS coordinates of each bird or mammal sighting.
It is immediately clear that bird sightings along the LTER follow a pattern. Inshore, diving bird species are common, such as common murres, puffins and cormorants. Pelagic bird species inhabiting deeper waters are mostly surface-feeders, and rely on processes such as fronts and upwellings at the shelf break to concentrate prey at the surface where feeding occurs. Albatross, shearwaters and storm-petrels are abundant as we head further out on our sampling lines.
Dan’s experience on the LTER study is helpful in that he can comment on both changes he sees from the spring, summer and fall cruises but also over the past several years. For example, in winter 2015-16, a large die-off event of common murres was observed in Alaska following an extreme warming event called “the blob” in the North Pacific. The murre die off was due to starvation from lack of forage fish availability. A question of the LTER study is how is the ocean chemistry, primary production, and zooplankton abundance tied to events such as this. Today, the murre numbers have not completely rebounded in the NGA and other species, such as the short-tailed shearwater are beginning to experience die-offs in the Bristol Bay area. In addition to shifts in bird populations, fish that frequent warmer waters, have been observed in the NGA, such as the ocean sunfish. Dan spotted one on this trip along our Middleton line swimming at the surface near a flock of albatross.
The fall survey is occurring when birds are preparing for harsh winter conditions or long migrations. We have spotted a few birds already changing to a winter plumage, which can make identification that much more challenging. As the strong September storms hit us, it is amazing to watch the birds handle the strong winds and driving rain. Last night as we worked on our nightly plankton tow a gale blew up around us. The winds picked up to 30 knots and the seas began to build to 10 feet, and the aptly named storm-petrels kept us entertained. At one point, we turned around and one had accidently gotten to close and seemingly stunned itself by hitting the back deck. We watched as it shook off the confusion and again took flight into the storm.
One of the exciting things about Dan’s job and my time observing with him was the sightings of rare and endangered species. Just off of Cape Cleare, as I sat on the flying bridge with Dan, I heard him exclaim, “no way!” as he grabbed his camera for some shots. After a few quiet moments, he shared that he had officially has his first sighting a Manx shearwater. The Manx shearwater has a primary range in the Atlantic Ocean, with rare but regular (1-2 per year) sightings in the NGA. There currently are no confirmed breeding locations identified in the Pacific Ocean. Every new sighting adds to our limited understanding of this small and mysterious population. Another exciting observation, although more frequent for Dan, was the short-tailed albatross. This beautiful bird, with its bubble-gum pink bill, is currently critically endangered, with a global population of only about 4000. The good news is that the population is currently rebounding from extremely low numbers.
Dan has not only done an amazing job as an observer but also as a teacher. He has helped me identify the birds as we see them and given me tips on how to hone in on particular species. In addition to this, he has supplied me with amazing facts about so many of the species, I am in awe of his knowledge, patience and his skill as a seabird and mammal observer.
One of the biggest questions I had (as well as my students) prior to my trip, was how would I handle sea sickness. I must say for a person who used to get sea sick snorkeling, I am thrilled to announce that I am sea sickness free. After riding through three strong gales with 12+ seas and 35-40 knot winds without any major problems, I think I’m in the clear. I owe a lot of it to consistent Bonine consumption!
Additionally, I would say I officially have my sea legs on. I have gotten really good at working, walking, eating, typing, and my brushing my teeth in high seas as the boat tosses about. One of my favorite phrases is when Captain John says, “the seas are going to get a bit snappy.” I asked him what he meant by this and he explained that snappy means the waves are sharp and about 8-12 feet in height in contrast to the swells. They hit the ship with a snap that causes it to vibrate, rather than just allowing it to slowly roll over them.
A last thing that has surprised me on this trip so far is the warm weather. I am typically always cold and was worried about how I would manage working outside on the nightshift in the elements. The weather, despite intermittent storms has remained surprisingly warm and with our mustang suits and rain gear, we have remained mostly dry. Almost daily we have had the pleasure of a beautiful ocean sunset, a full moon rising and stars over our heads. Now we are just crossing our fingers for some northern lights to grace our presence.
Animals Seen from the Flying Bridge
Stellar sea lion
South polar skua
Great blue heron