NOAA Teacher at Sea
Aboard R/V Fulmar
July 19-27, 2019
Mission: Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies Survey (ACCESS)
Geographic Area of Cruise: Pacific Ocean, Northern and Central California Coast
Date: July 20, 2019
Weather data: Wind – variable 5 knots or less, wind wave ~1’, Swell – NW 7’@ 10sec / S 1’ @ 11sec, Patchy fog
7:39am – We are about to pass under the Golden Gate Bridge, heading west toward the Farallon Islands. Several small fishing boats race out in a line off our port side, hulls bouncing against the waves and fishing nets flying in the wind. I am aboard R/V Fulmar in transit toward data collection point 4E, the eastern most point along ACCESS Transect 4. The TTG (“time to go,” or the time we expect to arrive at 4E) is estimated at 1h53’ (1 hour, 53 minutes), a figure that fluctuates as the boat changes course, speeds up, or slows down.
This is my second day on an ACCESS research cruise. Yesterday I got my boots wet in the data collection methods used on the back deck. The ACCESS research project collects various types of data at specific points along transects (invisible horizontal lines in the ocean). Today we will be collecting samples at 6 different points along Transect 4. With one day under my belt and a little better idea of what to expect, today I will aim to capture some of the action on the back deck of the boat throughout the day.
9:41am – Almost to Station 4E. “5 minutes to station.” This is the call across the radio from First Mate Rayon Carruthers, and also my signal to come down from the top deck and get ready for action. I put on my rain pants, rubber boots, a float jacket, and a hard hat. Once I have my gear on, I am ready to step onto the back deck just as the boat slows down for sample collection to commence. At this first station, 4E, we will collect multiple samples and data. Most of the sampling methods will be repeated multiple times through the course of the day at different locations and depths (most are described below).
10:53am – Station 4EX. We finished cleaning the hoop net after collecting a sample at a maximum depth of 33m. The hoop net is a tool used to collect a sample of small living things in deep water. This apparatus consists of an ~1m diameter metal ring that has multiple weights attached along the outside. A 3m, tapered fine mesh net with a cod end (small plastic container with mesh vents) hangs from the hoop. Attached to the net there is also a flow meter (to measure the amount of water that flowed through the net during the sample collection) and a depth sensor (to measure the depth profile of the tow). To deploy the net, we used a crane and winch to hoist the hoop out over the surface of the water and drop the net down into the water. Once the net was let out 100m using the winch, we brought it back in and pulled it back up onto the boat deck. Using a hose, we sprayed down the final 1m of the net, pushing anything clinging to the side toward the cod end. The organisms caught in the container were collected and stored for analysis back at a lab. On this haul the net caught a bunch of copepods (plankton) and ctenophores (jellyfish).
11:10am – Station 4ME. Dani Lipski just deployed the messenger, a small bronze-colored weight, sending it down the metal cable to the Niskin sampling bottle. This messenger will travel down the cable until it makes contact with a trigger, causing the two caps on the end of the Niskin bottle to close and capturing a few liters of deep water that we can then retrieve back up at the surface. Once the water arrives on the back deck, Kate Davis will fill three small vials to take back to the lab for a project that is looking at ocean acidification. The Niskin bottle is attached to the cable just above the CTD, a device that measures the conductivity (salinity), temperature, and depth of the water. In this case, we sent the Niskin bottle and CTD down to a depth of 95m.
12:16pm – Station 4M. Rachel Pound just threw a small plastic bucket tied to a rope over the side of the boat. Using the rope, she hauls the bucket in toward the ship and up over the railing, and then dumps it out. This process is repeated three times, and on the third throw the water that is hauled up is collected as a sample. Some of the surface water is collected for monitoring nutrients at the ocean surface, while another sample is collected for the ocean acidification project.
1:36pm – Station 4W. Using a small hoop net attached to a rope, Rachel Pound collected a small sample of the phytoplankton near the surface. She dropped the net down 30ft off the side of the boat and then towed it back up toward the boat. She repeated this procedure 3 times and then collected the sample from the cod end. This sample will be sent to the California Department of Public Health to be used to monitor the presence of harmful algal blooms that produce domoic acid, which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning.
2:54pm – The final sample collection of the day is underway. Jaime Jahncke just deployed the first messenger on the Tucker trawl net. This apparatus consists of three different nets. These nets are similar to the hoop net, with fine mesh and cod ends to collect small organisms in the water. The first net was open to collect a sample while the net descended toward ocean floor. The messenger was sent down to trigger the device to close the first net and open a second net. The second net was towed at a depth between 175-225m for ~10 minutes. After the deep tow, a second messenger will be sent down the cable to close the second net and open a third net, which will collect a sample from the water as the net is hauled back to the boat. The Tucker trawl aims to collect a sample of krill that live near the edge of the continental shelf and the deep ocean.
3:46pm – After a full day of action, the boat is turning back toward shore and heading toward the Bodega Bay Marina.
5:42pm – The boat is pulling in to the marina at Bodega Bay. Once the crew secures the boat along a dock, our day will be “done.” We will eat aboard the boat this evening, and then likely hit the bunks pretty early so that we can rise bright and early again tomorrow morning, ready to do it all again along a different transect line!
Did You Know?
The word copepod means “oar-legged.” The name comes from the Greek word cope meaning oar or paddle, and pod meaning leg. Copepods are found in fresh and salt water all over the world and are an important part of aquatic food chains. They eat algae, bacteria, and other dead matter, and are food for fish, birds, and other animals. There are over 10,000 identified species of copepods on Earth, making them the most numerous animal on the planet.