Mary Cook: Day 11 at Sea, March 29, 2016

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Mary Cook
Onboard R/V Norseman II
March 18-30, 2016

Mission: Deepwater Ecosystems of Glacier Bay National Park
Geographical Area of Cruise: Glacier Bay, Alaska
Date: Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Data from the Bridge
Temperature:
43.5°F
Pressure: 1028 millibars
Speed: 5.3 knots
Location: N 58°52.089’, W 136°05.272’

Science and Sea Stories Log

This afternoon, as science work continues all around, I took a short walk up to the ship’s bridge and chatted with Captain Mike and First Mate Scotty. They gave me a bit of history of the ship.

Pic of Ship Showing Bridge

R/V Norseman II

 

 

The R/V Norseman II is privately owned and based out of Seattle.

In 2007 it was converted from an Alaskan king crab boat into a scientific research vessel, especially equipped for Arctic conditions. Oceanography and marine mammal research have been the focus of the voyages, which usually occur between April and November. This is the first time they’ve had work in Glacier Bay. Scotty ranks Glacier Bay as one of his top five most beautiful places to see along the Alaskan coast!

The ship’s bridge is where they pilot the ship. It has windows all around for the best view possible.

 

Ships Bridge

The ship’s bridge is white with LOTS of windows!

The Captain has a big comfy chair that sits up tall and allows him to have a good command of the ship. He can see the radar and bathymetry monitors, the navigational chart and has good access to the ship’s phone.

On this cruise, Captain Mike works the 7-7 night shift because the ROV deployment off the back of the ship is a delicate and precise operation. The ship’s wheel and a giant compass are also on the Bridge. The wheel is wooden and old-fashioned looking but it really works and can be used to steer the ship in an emergency.

Mary at the Helm

Mary at the helm!

During our conversation, I asked Captain and Scotty to share an interesting sea story. At first they didn’t think they had anything to say. I think everyone has a story. So eventually they began to reminisce.

So the following are some sea stories that various ones on the ship were willing to share with me.

Captain Mike’s Sea Story

 

Captain at the Helm

Captain Mike

Captain Mike’s story occurred many years ago when he captained his 2nd fishing vessel.

The Captain began his story by saying, “Never make the mistake of letting the ship’s owner tell you where you are going to go and how to operate the vessel.”

We departed Kodiak, Alaska headed for Unimak Pass. The forecast was not good. I wanted to pull in to Sand Point and wait it out. Because he wanted to start fishing, the owner said, “It’ll be fine to keep on going.”

When we got to Sanak Island it was blowing a steady 80 knots with heavy freezing spray. The boat was getting heavier and heavier with ice building up on it. I couldn’t see out of the windows. There was ice on the inside of the windows about ½ inch thick. We went from Sanak Island to West Anchor Cove. It took me 12 hours to go only 8 miles.

The scanner on the radar broke so it was just going in circles. We spent the whole night trying to get to safety. I wanted to go up in a little cluster of crab boats. The owner, on the other hand, wanted to go up in the bay. But that’s where the williwaws were blowing. (A williwaw is a downdraft from the mountains— a sudden blast of wind descending from snow and ice fields to the sea.) Ten inches of ice built up all over the boat. I could barely steer the boat. We were all very glad to make it to the anchorage. It took the crew five days to beat off all the ice from the boat. I have a very healthy respect for ice. It puts the fear of God in you. When we finally made it to our fishing spot, the fishing was great!

Mate Scotty’s Sea Story

Mate Scotty

Mate Scotty

We were in the Arctic doing a walrus study with the US Fish and Wildlife. There was a thick fog and we were slowly navigating through the ice. The walrus were very skittish and we were wondering why. As we rounded a corner, suddenly there appeared a big polar bear! I heard the Inupiat interpreter yell, “Nanuk!” A polar bear!

(Inupiat interpreters work with us because of their vast knowledge of the ice and the animals.) Nanuk means polar bear in the Inupiat language.

Now we knew why the walrus were acting so nervous.

The bear crawled up on the ice and shook himself off. He jumped from one piece of sea ice to another, then back into the water.

To be able to see an animal in its natural habitat was really something!

Scientist/Diver Amanda’s Sea Story

Amanda and Mary in ships bow

Mary and Amanda on the ship’s bow

Amanda’s story is set in the Southern Ocean near McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Amanda and two other researchers were returning to station from their fieldwork under the sea ice. They were riding in a Piston Bully, which is a specially designed vehicle on tracks for gripping the terrain on snowy, icy conditions. The visibility was terrible with the wind blowing the snow all around. Even though the station was less than four football fields away, they couldn’t see it. Amanda was sitting in the back of the vehicle watching for the guiding flags placed every 100 feet leading to the station. But she saw none. In that situation, protocol is to stop and wait out the storm. The driver kept driving even though he couldn’t see where he was going. Suddenly, the backend of the Piston Bully dropped into a huge crack in the ice! The doors in the back were wedged shut! Amanda automatically went for the emergency roof hatch. She couldn’t get it open! Something heavy had been stowed on top of it. The others had escaped but she was trapped! Everyone was fearful that the ice crack would open up and swallow the Piston Bully with Amanda inside.

In a frantic adrenalin surge, Amanda kicked the hatch with all her might! The heavy equipment flew off as the hatch opened. Thankfully, Amanda crawled out to safety. The group waited out the blizzard for the next six hours in a nearby fishing hut.

Pison Bully fallen into ice crack in Antarctica

The Piston Bully fallen into a crack in Antarctica. Photo courtesy Amanda Kelley.

Personal Log

I really am enjoying the great sea stories of the people assembled on board this ship! They are such adventuresome characters doing things I’ve only read about or watched in movies or documentaries. From living at the bottom of the ocean in Hydrolab, diving in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica, riding out the storm, fending off aggressive sea lions, working in the Alvin submersible, to exploring and making discoveries of the unknown—all are so interesting and awe-inspiring! I hope you enjoy their sea stories too!

Stay tuned for more tomorrow…

Kacey Shaffer: That Is One BIG net! August 4, 2014

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Kacey Shaffer

Aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson

July 26 – August 13, 2014

Mission: Walleye Pollock Survey

Geographical Location: Bering Sea

Date: August 4, 2014

Weather information from the Bridge:

Air Temperature: 11° C

Wind Speed: 8.95 knots

Wind Direction: 327°

Weather Conditions: Foggy

Latitude: 58° 59’92 N

Longitude: 176° 55’09 W

Science and Technology Log:

Now that we have chosen a location to fish, the real fun begins! With a flurry of action, the Bridge (control center of the ship) announces we are going to trawl (fish). This alerts the Deck Crew who has the responsibility of deploying a net. There are three different types of trawls, AWT (Aleutian Wing Trawl), 83-112 Bottom Trawl, and the Marinovich. The type of trawl chosen depends on the depth in the water column and proximity to the bottom of what we want to catch. The 83-112 Bottom Trawl pretty much does what it is called. It is drug along the bottom of the ocean floor and picks up all sorts of awesome sea creatures. The Marinovich is a smaller net that is trawled near the surface. For this Pollock survey, we have primarily used the AWT. It is a mid-water net and that is the area where Pollock primarily live.

Diagram of the Aleutian Wing Trawl (AWT).

Diagram of the Aleutian Wing Trawl (AWT).

As you can see in the diagram, the AWT is cone-shaped. When fully deployed it is 491 feet long! The opening of the net, similar to a mouth, is about 115 feet wide. The Chief Boatswain (pronounced bo-sun) controls the winches that let wire out which extends the opening of the net at least another 500 feet from the aft (rear) deck of the ship.

The ITI screen located on the Bridge that allows us to see how far behind the boat and at what depth the net is located.

The ITI screen located on the Bridge that allows us to see how far behind the boat and at what depth the net is located.

The Deck Crew begins to roll out the net and prepares it for deployment. There are several pieces of equipment attached along the way. A Camtrawl is attached first. Can you guess what it does? It is essentially a camera attached to the net that records what is being caught in the net. Near the Camtrawl, a pocket net is attached to the bottom side of the AWT. This pocket net can show scientists what, if any, fish are escaping the AWT. On a piece of net called the kite that is attached to the headrope (top of the mouth/opening), the FS70 and SBE are attached. The FS70 is a transducer that reports data to the Bridge showing the scientist what is coming into the net, similar to a fish finder. The SBE is bathythermograph that records water temperature and depth. Tomweights are added next. These heavy pieces of chain help weigh the footrope (bottom of the mouth/opening) down, pulling it deeper into the water. The net continues to be reeled out and is finally connected to lines on each side of the deck. The horizontal distance between the lines helps the net to fully open its mouth.

The Camtrawl lets us see fish as they enter the net.

The Camtrawl lets us see fish as they enter the net.

Attaching the tomweights as the net is deployed.

Attaching the tomweights as the net is deployed.

While the net is out the Bridge crew, the Chief Boatswain, the Survey Tech and at least one scientist are on the Bridge communicating. Each person has a role to ensure a successful catch. The Bridge crew controls the speed and direction of the boat. The Chief Boatswain controls the net; changing the distance it is deployed. The Survey Tech has information to report on one of the computers. Lastly, the scientist watches multiple screens, making the decision on how far out the net goes and when to haulback (brings the net in). Ultimately, the Bridge crew is the liaison between all of the other departments and has the final decision on each step of the process, keeping everyone’s safety in mind. This piece of the fishing puzzle quickly became my favorite part of the survey. It is so neat to listen to the chatter of all these groups coming together for one purpose.

On the Bridge during a trawl - left to right: Lt. Frydrych, Officer on Duty; Taina, Chief Scientist; Allen, Survey Tech; Chief Boatswain Kirk.

On the Bridge during a trawl – left to right: Lt. Frydrych, Officer of the Deck; Taina Honkalehto, Chief Scientist; Allen Smith, Survey Tech; Chief Boatswain Kirk Perry.

Once we have reached haulback the Chief Boatswain alerts his deck crew and they begin reeling the net back in. They watch to make sure the lines are going back on the reel evenly. When the tomweights come back on deck they are removed. The next items to arrive are the FS70 and SBE. They are removed and the reeling in continues. The Camtrawl comes in and is removed and the pocket net is checked for fish. By that point we are almost to the end of the net where we’ll find our catch. Because the net is very heavy, the deck crew uses a crane to lift it and move it over the table. A member of the Deck Crew pulls a rope and all the fish are released onto the table. The table is a piece of equipment that holds the fish on the deck but feeds them into the Wet Lab by conveyor belt. Once the fish have been removed from the net it is finally rolled up onto the reel and awaits its next deployment. In my next blog we’ll get fishy as we explore the Wet Lab!

Deck Crew members Bill (left) and Mike (right) prepare a full net to be hoisted to the table by the crane.

Deck Crew members Bill (left) and Mike (right) prepare a full net to be hoisted to the table by the crane.

 

Personal Log:

I have delayed writing about this next location on the ship because it is my favorite place and I want to make sure I do it justice. Plus, the Officers who stand watch on the Bridge are really awesome and I don’t want to disappoint them with my lack of understanding. Here are a few pictures showing some of the things I actually do understand…

Display of tanks located on board the Dyson.

Display of tanks located on board the Dyson.

This screen provides Officers with valuable information about the ship’s engine, among other things. This diagram shows multiple tanks located on the ship. Some tanks take in seawater as we use diesel fuel, drinking water, etc. to counter balance that usage and keep the Dyson in a state of equilibrium. Also, if they are expecting high seas they may take in some of the seawater to make our ship heavier, reducing the effects of the waves on the ship. I’ve been told this may be important in a couple of days because we’re expecting some “weather.” That makes me a little nervous!

The General Alarm on the Bridge.

The General Alarm on the Bridge.

The General Alarm is really important to the safety of all those on the ship but it is not my favorite thing every day at noon. The General Alarm is used to signal us in an emergency – Abandon Ship, Man Overboard, Fire, etc. It is tested every day at noon…while I’m sleeping!! “Attention on the Dyson, this is a test of the ship’s General Alarm.” BEEEP. “That concludes the test of the ship’s General Alarm. Please heed all further alarms.”

Officer Gilman updates a chart during his watch.

ENS Gilman updates a chart during his watch.

What would happen if all of our fancy technology failed on us? How would we know where to tell the Coast Guard to find us? NOAA Corps Officers maintain paper charts as a back up method. At the time this photo was taken the Officer was predicting our location in 30 minutes and in 60 minutes. This prediction is updated at regular intervals so that we have a general area to report in the case of an emergency. Officer Gilman completes this task during his shift.

Kacey learns how to steer the Dyson from Officer Ostapeko.

Kacey learns how to steer the Dyson from Lt. Ostapenko. (Photo Credit: ENS Gilman)

Have I mentioned that the NOAA Corps Officers onboard the Dyson are awesome? They’re so great they let me steer the boat for a little while! In the photo Lt. Ostapenko teaches me how to maintain the ship in a constant direction. The wheel is very sensitive and it took some time to adjust to amount of effort it takes to turn left or right. We’re talking fingertip pushes! The rudder is so large that even just a little push left or right can make a huge difference in the ships course.

Kacey records data on the Bridge during an AWT.

Kacey records data on the Bridge during an AWT. (Photo Credit: Darin)

Since beginning our survey I’ve only missed being on the Bridge for one trawl. Because I have paid very close attention during those trawls Scientist Darin is now allowing me to record some data. I am entering information about the net in this photo. Survey Tech Allen is making sure I do it correctly!

There are so many other things on the Bridge that deserve to be showcased. The ship can be controlled from any one of four locations. Besides the main control center at the front of the Bridge, there are control stations on either side of the ship, port and starboard, as well as the aft (rear). There is the radar system, too. It is necessary so the Officers can determine the location of other vessels and the direction they are traveling. As I’ve been told, their #1 job responsibility is to look out the windows and make sure we don’t run into anything. They are self-proclaimed nerds about safety and that makes me feel very safe!

Did you know? The NOAA Commissioned Officers Corps is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. There are currently 321 commissioned officers.

Louise Todd, From the Bridge, September 26, 2013

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Louise Todd
Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II
September 13 – 29, 2013

Mission: Shark and Red Snapper Bottom Longline Survey
Geographical Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico
Date: September 26, 2013

Weather Data from the Bridge:
Barometric Pressure: 1012.23mb
Sea Temperature: 28.4˚C
Air Temperature: 29.6˚C
Wind speed: 6.43knots

Science and Technology Log:

This morning I went up to the bridge to learn about how the NOAA Corps Officers and the Captain navigate and maneuver the Oregon II.  Ensign Rachel Pryor, my roommate, and Captain Dave Nelson gave me a great tour of the bridge!

The Oregon II is 172 feet long and has a maximum speed of 11 knots.  It was built in 1967.  It has two engines although usually only one engine is used.  The second engine is used when transiting in and out of channels or to give the ship more power when in fairways, the areas of high traffic in the Gulf.  The Oregon II has a draft of 15 feet which means the hull extends 15 feet underneath the water line.  My stateroom is below the water line!  Typically the ship will not go into water shallower than 30 feet.

The bridge has a large number of monitors that provide a range of information to assist with navigation.  There are two radar screens, one typically set to a range of 12 miles and one typically set to a range of 8 miles.  These screens enable the officer navigating the ship to see obstructions, other ships and buoys.  When the radar picks up another vessel, it lists a wealth of information on the vessel including its current rate of speed and its destination.  The radar is also useful in displaying squalls, fast moving storms,  as they develop.

Radar Screen

The radar screen is on the far right

Weather is constantly being displayed on another monitor to help the officer determine what to expect throughout the day.

The Nobeltec is a computerized version of navigation charts that illustrates where the ship is and gives information on the distance until our next station, similar to a GPS in your car.  ENS Pryor compares the Nobeltec to hard copies of the chart every 30 minutes.  Using the hard copies of the charts provides insurance in case the Nobeltec is not working.

Charts

Navigation charts

When we arrive at a station, the speed and direction of the wind are carefully considered by the Officer of the Deck (OOD) as they are crucial in successfully setting and hauling back the line.  It is important that the ship is being pushed off of the line so the line doesn’t get tangled up in the propeller of the ship.  While we are setting the line, the OODis able to stop the engines and even back the ship up to maintain slack in the main line as needed.  Cameras on the stern enable the OOD to see the line being set out and make adjustments in the direction of the ship if needed.  The same considerations are taken when we are hauling back.  The ship typically does not go over 2 knots when the line is being brought back in.  The speed can be reduced as needed during the haul back.  The OOD carefully monitors the haul back from a small window on the side of the bridge.  A lot of work goes into navigating the Oregon II safely!

Personal Log:

I was amazed to see all the monitors up on the bridge!  Keeping everything straight requires a lot of focus.  Being up on the bridge gave me a new perspective of all that goes into each station.  We wouldn’t be able to see all of these sharks without the careful driving from the OOD.

The water has been very calm the past few days. It is like being on a lake.  We’ve had nice weather too!  A good breeze has kept us from getting too hot when we are setting the line or hauling back.

Did you Know?

The stations where we sample are placed into categories depending on their depth.  There are A, B and C stations.  A stations are the most shallow, 5-30 fathoms.  B stations are between 30 and 100 fathoms.  C stations are the deepest, 100-200 fathoms.  One fathom is equal to 6 feet.  A fathometer is used to measure the depth.

Fathometer

The fathometer is the screen on the left

Louise Todd, Underway, September 16, 2013

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Louise Todd
Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II
September 13 – 29, 2013

Mission: Shark and Red Snapper Bottom Longline Survey
Geographical Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico
Date: September 16, 2013

Weather Data from the Bridge:
Barometric Pressure: 1014.01mb
Sea Temperature: 28.8˚Celsius
Air Temperature: 29.9˚C
Wind speed: 19.22 knots

Science and Technology Log:

Oregon II

Oregon II (Photo Credit NOAA)

We left Galveston a little before 2pm on Sunday, September 15.  We were in transit to our first sampling location and should arrive there around 8pm tonight.  Depending on the conditions we might actually be able to do some fishing tonight!

Today we went through our abandon ship drill.  The ship’s alarm is used to alert everyone on board in the event of an emergency.  Abandon ship is indicated by 7 short rings followed by one long ring of the alarm.  When the alarm sounds with the abandon ship signal, we must carry our survival suits, personal flotation devices (PFDs), long pants, a hat and a long-sleeved shirt to the well deck, at the bow (front) of the ship.  My survival suit and personal flotation device (PFD) are kept in cabinets in my room.  The survival suit is tricky to get on and it gets very, very warm when you are wearing it!

Survival Suit

In my survival suit (Photo Credit Lisa Jones)

Personal Log:

During this initial transit, there hasn’t been much for me to do.  I spent a lot of time sleeping on Sunday.  The way the waves rock the ship back and forth makes me very sleepy!  I have taken a few short naps today in order to be ready in case we do any fishing on the later part of my shift tonight.  I am on the day shift which means I will work noon to midnight.  I think it will take me some time to get used to staying up that late but I think these naps will help!  As we start fishing the days will be much busier for me so staying awake will be easy I hope.  The views off of the ship are amazing.  I was surprised to see how blue the water gets.

View off the ship

View off the Oregon II

My stateroom is very comfortable and I have plenty of space in drawers and cabinets for everything I brought with me.  I am getting used to latching doors and drawers behind me so they do not slam back and forth as the ship rocks.  On the ship there is always someone sleeping so everyone works hard to be courteous and stay quiet.

My stateroom

My stateroom

My roommate is an officer on the ship so we are usually in the room at different times.  Officers on NOAA ships are part of the NOAA Corps.  Roommates are usually assigned based on the shifts people are working so each person has some time alone in the room.  As we start fishing more I will bring my computer and other items I might want throughout the day into one of the labs on the ship so I won’t have to go in and out of the room when my roommate might be sleeping.  The curtains are helpful in blocking out any light that might prevent you from sleeping.  The showers are right next to my room which is convenient and the common head (bathroom) is just around the corner.

There are plenty of food choices in the galley on the ship and everything has been delicious.  In the mornings you can even get eggs made to order!  I certainly don’t think I will be going hungry!

Did You Know?

Even in the warmer waters of the Gulf of Mexico, hypothermia is risk due to the difference in water temperature and our body temperatures.  The survival suit helps to protect our bodies from the difference in temperature.

 

Katie Sard: The Science Needed to Get the Data, July 31, 2013

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Katie Sard
Aboard NOAA Ship Rainier
July 29 – August 15, 2013

Mission:  Hydrographic Survey
Geographical Area of the Cruise:  Shumagin Islands, Alaska
Date: Wednesday, July 31, 2013

Weather Data from the Bridge:
GPS location:  54°52.288’N, 159°55.055’W
Sky condition:  Overcast (OVC) with Fog (FG)
Visibility:  Less than 2 nautical miles (nm)
Wind: 120 degrees true, 13 knots (kt)
Sea level pressure:  1009.7 millibar (mb)
Sea wave height:  1 foot (ft)
Swell waves:  180 degrees true, 3 ft
Water temperature:  9.4°C
Air temperature:  12.2°C

Science and Technology Log

From the moment I stepped on to the NOAA Ship Rainier in port at the Coast Guard Base in Kodiak three days ago, it was apparent to me that this ship functions in order to acquire information.  Hours upon hours of teamwork, dedication, money, and precise planning go in to making sure this ship gets to the right spot, functions properly, and has the correct instrumentation to collect the data.  My goal for this post is to share with you all of the science that goes into making sure that this ship is able to perform the overall mission of doing hydrographic surveys.

A view of the bow of the ship from the flying bridge as we began to get underway.

A view of the bow of the ship from the flying bridge as we began to get underway.

First perhaps I should give a brief background of what a hydrographic survey is and why they are done.  The NOAA Ship Rainier uses sonar in order to collect information about the ocean floor.  Each time the ship, or any of the survey launches (smaller boats), use this sonar, they are surveying the area for hydrographic information.

Two of the launches had to get rearranged into their standard locations on the ship as we left port.  They had been switched around while at port for maintenance.

Two of the launches had to get rearranged into their standard locations on the ship as we left port. They had been switched around while at port for maintenance.

This information is then processed and used to create nautical charts which NOAA produces for navigational purposes.  These nautical charts contain information on ocean floor depth, but they also give detailed information on areas that may be hazardous to those navigating the waters in that area.  I will stop there for now on the hydrographic surveys because the surveys have only just begun today on the ship.  The ship has been in transit the past two days, meaning that we have been moving from port to our survey area.   Little did I know how much science it takes to even get the ship to the survey area where the hydrographic surveys can begin.

If you are one of my students reading this blog, you may know how I say that science is everywhere.  One of my students even asked me this past year, “Mrs. Sard, are you like ALWAYS thinking about science?”  Well it turns out that science IS everywhere on this ship.  I’ve had the pleasure of chatting with several different crew members in my first few days, and they’ve been eager to explain the many functions of the ship and the crew.  What is important to understand is that there are several departments that all must work together in order to allow the ship to function properly.  Here is a brief breakdown of each department and what their main tasks are:

Wardroom – These are mostly members of the NOAA Corps which is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.  Besides managing and operating the ship, these dedicated workers also function as scientists and engineers.

Survey – These are the scientists that are mostly in charge of the hydrographic data.  They collect, process, and manage the information that is collected during the surveys.

Engineers – These people have the important task of keeping the ship in functioning order.  They do things like maintain the engine room and respond to any mechanical type issues.

Electronics Technician (ET) – This crew is in charge of the technology on board the ship.  They ensure that things like the computers, internet, and phones are all up in working condition.

Steward – This department is tasked with the job of feeding the crew members.  (They do a great job, and I think I might actually gain weight while out a sea because I cannot say no to the delicious food they prepare!)

Part of the galley where the food is served and we eat three delicious meals each day!

Part of the galley where the food is served and we eat three delicious meals each day!

Deck – The deck crew members are responsible for things like driving the small launches, maintaining the ship’s equipment, and so on.

Visitors – These would be people, like me, who are only on board the ship temporarily.  They have a specific purpose that usually falls within one of the other departments.

Navigating the Ship

Now that you are aware of the overall goal of the ship, and you are familiar with the departments, let me discuss the science that is needed to get the ship where we need to go.  It was an overwhelming and exciting feeling to be on the bridge of the ship while we were getting underway.  The Officer On Deck (OOD) was giving orders to both the helmsman, who marked his orders down on a marker board, and the “lee helm” or engine controls operated by ENS Poremba. The third mate was acting as the navigator and had precisely mapped out the route for safely and efficiently departing the Coast Guard base.

You can see part of the route that the navigator has mapped out for the ship.

You can see part of the route that the navigator has mapped out for the ship.

The Commanding Officer (CO) was overseeing all that was happening, along with several other officers.  I was in awe of how smoothly everything came together, and how efficiently the people worked together as a team.  LT Gonsalves eloquently said that the ship is like a “floating city” and that all of the pieces must come together in order for it to function.

As I awoke yesterday, after our first night out at sea, I could hear the fog horn coming from the bridge.  I decided to go and observe again to see how things were functioning out at open sea.  ENS Wall showed me how to do a GPS fix to make sure that we are following the plans laid out for navigation.

Ens Wall taking a GPS fix that he showed be how to do!

Ens Wall taking a GPS fix that he showed be how to do!

These are taken about every fifteen minutes.  He used the current chart that was laid out as well as electronic GPS measurements and plotted them on the chart with a compass.  He then marked the latitude and longitude with the time to show that we were on course at that moment.

The OOD, John Kidd, went on to explain a bit more about the navigation of the ship including the gyroscope. Simply put, a gyroscope is an instrument used for measuring and maintaining orientation while out at sea, but it’s not as simple as it looks.  I noticed a sign that read “Gyro Error” and so I asked.  John went on to tell me that the gyro error is the difference between true north and what the gyro thinks is north.  The difference between true north and magnetic north is the combination of “variation” which is a function of local magnetic fields, and “deviation” which is the effect the magnetic fields aboard the boat have on the compass.  The steel ship itself and all of the electricity on board have some crazy magnetic fields that interfere.

Finally, I went up to the bridge this morning to quickly get the weather data that I needed for my blog.  What I thought would be a quick visit turned into a 30 minute conversation with the crew.  It was remarkable to see all of the data that is collected each hour dealing with the weather.  The conning officer is required to take the data once each hour and enter it into the computer.  They don’t simply look out and take a rough estimate of the weather.  It is a detailed process that takes a variety of instrumentation in order to get the quantified weather data that is needed.   All of the weather data is then sent off to  NOAA’s National Weather Service and is used to refine the local at-sea weather forecasts.

Weather data from the Bridge.  Hey INMS students - check out this data table! Data tables can be good!

Weather data from the Bridge. Hey INMS students – check out this data table! Data tables can be good!

I couldn’t help but smile at all of the science and math that was taking place in order to have safe navigation through the sea.  So much science goes in to making sure that the officers have accurate data in order to navigate the ship.  This is one of my goals as a TAS: I want to show my students how many different opportunities they have, and the possible fields of science that NOAA has to offer.

Personal Log

When I arrived in Kodiak on Saturday, Avery Marvin, the previous Teacher at Sea (TAS) was still on board for one night.  She took me on a tour of the ship, and gave me the low down on how everything functions.  Avery and I decided that before departing on Monday, we would take the day on Sunday to explore the island of Kodiak.  I couldn’t believe all of the wildlife I saw including the various creatures of the tide pools, bald eagles, sea otters, salmon, and so much more.

TAS Marvin (left) and myself (right) as we went tide pooling at Fort Abercrombie State Historical Park.

TAS Marvin (left) and myself (right) as we went tide pooling at Fort Abercrombie State Historical Park.

I have been so impressed by the functionality of the ship.  Every inch of space is used, and the people on board truly understand what it means to work as a team.  Yesterday we had our safety drills including Fire/Emergency and Abandon Ship.  When the different alarms sounded, I was required to quickly get to my muster station where I was checked in and accounted for to the CO.  I also was asked to try on my immersion suit.  In all of the excitement, I wasn’t able to get a picture, but it was an experience to practice these drills.

The rack where I will be staying over the next three weeks.

The rack where I will be staying over the next three weeks.

The head or the bathroom in my room that I share with my roommate Martha.

The head or the bathroom in my room that I share with my roommate Martha.

I believe my body is starting to get accustomed to the constant movement of the ship. While sleeping in my rack (bed) at night, I can feel it as the ship sways back and forth.  At times the waves are large, but for the most part it feels as though I’m being rocked to sleep.

Please post comments, or email me at katie.sard@lincoln.k12.or.us if you have any questions or information that you would like me to blog about.  I’m looking forward to sharing more information on my experience with you next time!

Best wishes,

TAS Sard

Did You Know…

Each ship has it’s own call sign.  These signs are displayed on the ship by flags that each represent one letter in the alphabet, and they are international symbols that are used.  The call sign for the NOAA Ship Rainier is WTEF.

The flags for the call sign of the Rainier.  From top to bottom they read WTEF.

The flags for the call sign of the Rainier. From top to bottom they read WTEF.

To ensure clearness when reading off these letters, the military alphabet is used.  For example, if you were reading the call sign for the Rainier it would read Whiskey Tango Echo Foxtrot instead of just WTEF.

Sue Cullumber: Testing the Water and More, June 19, 2013

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Sue Cullumber
Onboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter
June 5–24, 2013

Mission: Ecosystem Monitoring Survey
Date: 6/19/2013
Geographical area of cruise: The continental shelf from north of Cape Hatteras, NC, including Georges Bank and the Gulf of Maine, to the Nova Scotia Shelf

Weather Data from the Bridge:
Latitude/longitude: 3853.256 N, 7356.669W
Temperature: 18.6ºC
Barometer: 1014.67 mb
Speed: 9.7 knots

CTDscreen

CTD reading on the computer. Blue is density, red is salinity, green is temperature and black indicates the depth.

Science and Technology Log:

Even before the plankton samples are brought onboard, scientists start recording many types of data when the equipment is launched. The bongos are fitted with an electronic CTD (conductivity, temperature and density) and as they are lowered into the ocean the temperature, density and salinity (salt content) are recorded on a computer. This helps scientists with habitat modeling and determining the causes for changes in the zooplankton communities. Each bongo net also has a flow-through meter which records how much water is moving through the net during the launch and can is used to estimate the number of plankton found in one cubic meter of water.

ZIplankton

Zooplankton (Z) and Icthyoplankton (I) samples.

The plankton collected from the two bongo nets are separated into two main samples that will be tested for zooplankton and icthyoplankton (fish larvae and eggs). These get stored in a glass jars with either ethanol or formalin to preserve them. The formalin samples are sent to a lab in Poland for counting and identification. Formalin is good for preserving the shape of the organism, makes for easy identification, and is not flammable, so it can be sent abroad.  However, formalin destroys the genetics (DNA) of the organisms, which is why ethanol is used with some of the samples and these are tested at the NOAA lab in Narragansett, Rhode Island.

sueplankton

Holding one of our zooplankton samples – photo by Paula Rychtar.

When the samples are returned from Poland, the icthyoplankton samples are used by scientists to determine changes in the abundance of the different fish species. Whereas, the zooplankton samples are often used in studies on climate change. Scientists have found from current and historic research (over a span of about 40 years) that there are changes in the distribution of different species and increases in temperature of the ocean water.

At the Rosette stations we take nutrient samples from the different water depths. They are testing for nitrates, phosphates and silicates. Nutrient samples are an important indicator of zooplankton productivity. These nutrients get used up quickly near the surface by phytoplankton during the process of photosynthesis (remember phytoplankton are at the base of the food chain and are producers). As the nutrients pass through the food chain (zooplankton eating phytoplankton and then on up the chain) they are returned to the deeper areas by the oxidation of the sinking organic matter. Therefore, as you go deeper into the ocean these nutrients tend to build up.  The Rosettes also have a CTD attached to record conductivity, temperature and density at the different depths.

Chris-DICtests

Scientist, Chris Taylor, completing the dissolved inorganic carbon test.

CO2test

The dissolved inorganic carbon test uses chemicals to stop any further biological processes and suspend the CO2 in “time”.

Another test that is conducted on the Rosettes is for the amount of dissolved inorganic carbon. This test is an indicator of the amount of carbon dioxide that the ocean uptakes from outside sources (such as cars, factories or other man-made sources). Scientists want to know how atmospheric carbon is affecting ocean chemistry  and marine ecosystems and changing the PH (acids and bases) of the ocean water. One thing they are interested in is how this may be affecting the formation of calcium in marine organisms such as clams, oysters, and coral.

New word: oxidation – the chemical combination of a substance with oxygen.

canal

Cape Cod canal.

Personal Log:

This week we headed back south and went through the Cape Cod canal outside of Plymouth, Massachusetts. I had to get up a little earlier to see it, but it was well worth it.  The area is beautiful and there were many small boats and people enjoying the great weather.

smallboat

Small boat bringing in a new group to the Gordon Gunter.

We also did a small boat transfer to bring five new people onboard, while three others left at the same time. It was hard to say goodbye, but it will be nice to get to know all the new faces.

dolphinsthree

Common Dolphins swimming next to the Gordon Gunter.

So now that we are heading south the weather is warming up. I have been told that we may start seeing Loggerhead turtles as the waters warm up – that would be so cool.  We had a visit by another group of Common Dolphins the other day. They were swimming along the side of the ship and then went up to the bow. They are just so fun to watch and photograph.

We have been seeing a lot of balloons (mylar and rubber) on the ocean surface. These are released into the air by people, often on cruise ships, and then land on the surface. Sea turtles, dolphins, whales and sea birds often mistake these for jelly fish and eat them.  They can choke on the balloons or get tangled in the string, frequently leading to death. Today, we actually saw more balloons than sea birds!!! A good rule is to never release balloons into the air no matter where you live!

balloon

A mylar balloon seen in the water by our ship.

Did you know?  A humpback whale will eat about 5000 pounds of krill in a day. While a blue whale eats about 8000 pounds of krill daily.

Question of the day?  If 1000 krill = 2 pounds, then together how many krill does a humpback and blue whale consume on a daily basis.

Blue Whale, Balaenoptera Musculus

Blue Whale, Balaenoptera Musculus

Sue Cullumber: Hooray, We Are Finally on Our Way! June 10, 2013

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Sue Cullumber
Onboard NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter
June 5–24, 2013

Mission: Ecosystem Monitoring Survey
Date: 6/10/13
Geographical area of cruise:  The continental shelf from north of Cape Hatteras, NC, including Georges Bank and the Gulf of Maine, to the Nova Scotia Shelf

Weather Data from the Bridge:
Time:  21:30 (9:30 pm)
Longitude/latitude: 40.50289N, 68.76736W
Temperature  14.1ºC
Barrometer 1017.35 mb
Knots  10.2

sueleavingport

Leaving Newport – photo by Chris Melrose.

Science and Technology Log:

After several ship issues, we were able to finally head out from Newport, RI on June 9th after 4 extra days in dock.  We have started the survey and are using two main types of equipment that we will deploy at the various stations: CTD/Bongo Nets and CTD Rosette Stations.  We were originally scheduled to visit about 160 stations, but due to the unforeseen ship issues, these may have to be scaled back.  Some of the stations will just be the Bongo and others only the Rosette, but some will include both sets of equipment.

Bongos

Bongo and baby bongos being deployed during the survey.

A bongo net is a two net system that basically, looks like a bongo drum.  It is used to bring up various types of plankton while a CTD is mounted above it on the tow wire to test for temperature, conductivity and depth during the tow. The two nets may have different sizes of mesh so that it will only  filter the various types of plankton based on the size of the holes.  The small mesh is able to capture the smaller phytoplankton, but the larger zooplankton (animals) can dart out of the way and avoid being captured. The larger mesh is able to catch the zooplankton but allows the phytoplankton to go through the openings. There are regular bongo nets and also baby bongo nets that may be launched at the same time to catch different types of plankton.

rosetteinwater

Rosette CTD returning to the surface.

The Rosette CTD equipment is a series of 10 cylinders that can capture water from different depths to test for nutrient levels and dissolved inorganic carbon, which provides a measure of acidity in the ocean. These are fired remotely via an electronic trigger that is programed by a computer program where each cylinder can be fired seperately to get 10 samples from different depths.  It also has several sensors on it to measure oxygen, light and chlorophyll levels, as well as temperature and salinity (salt) from the surface to the bottom of the water column.

plankton

Copepods and Krill from one of the bongo net catches.

Our first station was about 3 1/2 hours east of Newport, RI and it was a Bongo Station.  I am on the noon to midnight shift each day.  So on our first day, during my watch, we made four Bongo stops and two CTD Rosettes. Today we completed more of the Bongos on my watch.  We are bringing up a variety of zooplankton like copepods, ctenophores, krill, and some fish larvae.  We have also seen quite a bit of phytoplankton on the surface of the water.

sueinsurvivalw

Wearing the survival suit – photo by Cathleen Turner.

Personal Log:

Being on a ship, I have to get used to the swaying and moving about.  It is constantly rocking, so it can be a little challenging to walk around.  I have been told that I will get used to this and it is actually great when you want to go to sleep!  Luckily I have not had any sea sickness yet and I hope that continues!  We completed several safety drills that included a fire drill and abandon ship drill where we had to put on our survival suits – now I look like a New England Lobster!

dolphinsfav

Common dolphins swimming off the ship’s bow.

blueshark

Blue shark swimming beside the Gordon Gunter.

Today was an amazing day – was able to see Right Whales, Blue Sharks and Common Dolphins – with the dolphins surfing off the ship’s bow!  The Northern Right Whale is one of the most endangered species on the planet with only 300 left in the wild.  One of the reasons there are so few left is that swim on the surface and were excessively hunted and there feeding areas were within the Boston shipping lanes, so they were frequently hit by ships. Recently these shipping lanes have been moved to help protect these animals.  So I feel very privileged to have been able to see one!

Did you know? Plankton are the basis for the ocean food web.  They are plentiful, small, and free floating (they do not swim). The word plankton comes from the Greek word “planktos” which means drifting. “Plankton” from the TV show SpongeBob is actually a Copepod – a type of zooplankton.

Copepod

Copepod

Question of the day:  Why do you think it is important that the scientists study plankton?