Robert Oddo, July 14, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Robert Oddo
Onboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown 
July 11 – August 10, 2009 

Mission: PIRATA (Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic)
Geographical area of cruise: Tropical Atlantic
Date: July 14, 2009

Deploying a radiosonde

Deploying a radiosonde

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Outside Temperature 26.01oC
Relative Humidity 89.26
Sea Surface Temperature 28.3oC
Barometric Pressure 1015.9 inches
Latitude 8o 53.96 N Longitude 48o 05.43 W

Science and Technology Log 

We released our first radiosonde this morning.  These balloons have instruments attached to them that will measure atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity as they go up into the atmosphere.  As the balloon rises, it expands as the atmospheric pressure outside the balloon decreases. After about 2 hours the balloon bursts and falls back into the ocean. Four of this particular type of radiosonde will be released every day.  This data is used as input for weather prediction models, weather and climate change research, input for air pollution models and ground truth for satellite data.

Radiosonde is off!

Radiosonde is off!

We also deployed our first global drifter this afternoon. A surface drifter consists of a buoy and a sea anchor. The drifters have sensors that can measure sea surface temperature and the ocean current.  Information is collected by the sensors and uploaded to a passing satellite and then transmitted back to Earth where all the information from all the drifters give us a better picture of what is happening out in the ocean. Drifters are deployed from hurricane hunter aircraft so we can better predict and understand hurricanes. Data from drifters was used to determine where floating debris would be found shortly after the disappearance of Air France flight 447 on May 31, 2009.  For more information on the NOAA Global Drifter Program, visit their website.  

Personal Log 

The drifter buoy is deployed.

The drifter buoy is deployed.

I have received a couple of emails asking about the food on the ship.  We have three meals a day and there is quite a selection. For breakfast, you can have pancakes, eggs, sausage, oatmeal, fresh fruit or a selection of dry cereal.  For lunch, it really varies; today there was a salad, hot dogs, hamburgers and french fries.  Dinner also varies, but so far we have had fish, ribs, chicken and a salad. There is also a veggie option for each meal.  Coffee, tea and other beverages as well as some snack items are pretty much available 24 hours.

Our dining hall

Our dining hall

Tracking the cruise plan

Tracking the cruise plan

Robert Oddo, July 13, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Robert Oddo
Onboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown 
July 11 – August 10, 2009 

Mission: PIRATA (Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic)
Geographical area of cruise: Tropical Atlantic
Date: July 13, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Outside Temperature 27.7oC
Relative Humidity 80.16
Sea Temperature 28.2oC
Barometric Pressure 1013.76 inches
Latitude 10o 21.11 N Longitude 52o 13.67 W

The replacement PIRATA Buoy

The replacement PIRATA Buoy

Science and Technology Log 

We have been steaming at full speed towards our first buoy. To the right you can see a picture of the replacement buoy that is on the back of the ship.  This buoy will be lowered into the water using cranes on the ship and then anchored in place. These buoys are anchored on the bottom of the ocean, which is very deep here in the Tropical Atlantic.  The ocean here right under this ship is 4,990 meters or 16,371 feet deep. That’s a lot of chain to attach to the anchor!!  A picture of the buoy instruments that will be redeployed are on the right.  There are other instruments that extend down into the ocean.

Personal Log 

Anchors for the buoys ATLAS buoy instruments that will be redeployed

Anchors for the buoys

I was wondering how we were going to deal with time as we traveled to the East.  A notice was put up yesterday telling us that we should change our clocks from 4 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time to 3 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.  This ship has things going on 24 hours, so it is really easy to lose track of time and the day.

All in all, it is pretty comfortable on board and the people are very friendly. If you need to take a break from your work you can watch a video, read in the library, or sit out on the back deck of the ship.

Anchors for the ATLAS buoy instruments that to redeploy

Anchors for the ATLAS buoy instruments to redeploy

Cruise ship plan

Cruise ship plan

We change our clocks as we move east

We change our clocks as we move east

Robert Oddo, July 12, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Robert Oddo
Onboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown 
July 11 – August 10, 2009 

Mission: PIRATA (Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic)
Geographical area of cruise: Tropical Atlantic
Date: July 12, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Air Temp 27.5o C(81.5F)
Relative Humidity 76.63
Sea Temp 28.22
Barometric Pressure 1015.15 inches
Latitude 11o42.80 North Longitude 56o 07.33 West
Traveling at 10.7 knots

Setting up the lab

Setting up the lab

Science and Technology Log 

There is a lot of unpacking and setup that has to be done on a scientific cruise like this one. Researchers were busy today getting schedules setup, equipment working and orienting themselves to their workspaces. We are now steaming directly to 0o, 23oW to service a buoy in the PIRATA backbone that has not been transmitting data since 21 June 2009.

Yesterday, I wrote about PIRATA (Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic). Another project that is also going on simultaneously is the Aerosol and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE).  Saharan dust storms are estimated to inject three billion metric tons of mineral aerosols a year into the troposphere. The aerosols impact precipitation, fertilize the ocean, and change the air quality and impact ecosystems in the Caribbean and the US eastern seaboard. Red tides, increased rates of asthma and changes in precipitation in the eastern Atlantic and Caribbean have been associated with this dust from the Sahara. The data collected from this cruise will help us understand better the impact of his Saharan dust on the Caribbean and the US eastern seaboard.

Here I am out on the back deck.

Here I am out on the back deck.

One must be prepared for emergencies at sea and today we had an abandon ship drill and a fire drill. There are 49 people aboard the Ronald H. Brown and it is important to know what do in case of an emergency and make sure everyone is accounted for.

Personal Log 

We got underway from Barbados yesterday afternoon and the seas were described as being a bit “lumpy”.  I noticed little by little people seemed to disappear and was wondering what was going on and then it hit me.  Nausea, cold sweats and not being to get comfortable at all.  I got real sleepy and found a spot in the library and crashed for a couple hours. There is really no place to go. I woke up around dinner, took some seasickness medicine and hung out for the rest of the evening. Believe me, I was not the only one trying to get their sea legs.  There were very few people around. It takes time for the body to adjust to the rocking of the boat and some adjust faster than others.  This morning, I feel much better.

The course we have taken since we departed from Bridgetown

The course we have taken since we departed from Bridgetown

Sunset from the back of the ship

Sunset from the back of the ship

Robert Oddo, July 11, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Robert Oddo
Onboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown 
July 11 – August 10, 2009 

Mission: PIRATA (Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic)
Geographical area of cruise: Tropical Atlantic
Date: July 11, 2009

NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown docked in Barbados

NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown docked in Barbados

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Air Temperature 27.6o C (81.7o)
Relative Humidity 82.6%
Sea Surface Temperature 28.4oC (83.1oF)
Atmospheric Pressure 1014.8

Science and Technology Log 

The Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Atlantic (PIRATA) is project that is monitoring the upper ocean and near surface atmosphere of the Tropical Atlantic.  This is done by the deployment and maintenance of moored buoys and meteorological stations across the Atlantic. One of the purposes of this cruise is to do maintenance work on some of the buoys. The last couple of days have been spent loading equipment onto the ship and preparing the ship for this mission.

One of the science labs with equipment ready to be unpacked

One of the science labs with equipment ready to be unpacked

There is an incredible amount of preparation for a cruise such as this one. Scientific equipment must be packed carefully, shipped to the location where the ship is docked, and then unloaded and set up. If you forget something you might not be able to collect some of the data that you hoped to obtain. The data collected from this array of buoys will lead to a better understanding of an area of the Atlantic which is the main development region of tropical cyclones that threaten the United States.

Personal Log 

Arrived in Barbados late on the night of July 9th. Got to the R. H. Brown early on the morning on the 10th. Spent most of the day getting situated and meeting members of the scientific team as well as the crew.  Berths are small but comfortable.  I was surprised at all the amenities on the ship.  There is wireless Internet, a ship store, movies at 5:30pm and 7:30pm, laundry and even an exercise room with free weights, and elliptical and a treadmill. We attended an orientation session this morning regarding ship procedures, safety and general life onboard the R. H. Brown. 

Picture of my berth.  I have the top bunk.

Picture of my berth. I have the top bunk.

 Practicing getting in and out of immersion suits

Practicing getting in and out of immersion suits 

Vince Rosato and Kim Pratt, March 24, 2006

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Vince Rosato & Kim Pratt
Onboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown
March 9 – 28, 2006

Mission: Collect oceanographic and climate modeling data
Geographical Area: Barbados, West Indies
Date: March 24, 2006

Science and Technology Log 

SHIP VOCABULARY 

The meaning of common ship terms may help land “lubbers,” (people who love life off the sea), get around this home on the seas.  First, let’s cover directions on a ship.  The front is called the BOW and the back end is called the STERN.  The very back deck over the propellers is the FANTAIL. Facing the bow, the right side is the STARBOARD SIDE and the left side is the PORT SIDE.  The KEEL is under the middle of the boat.  The WATERLINE is where the water meets the HULL on the outside of the ship.  The picture today is of the interior, or inside of the ship.  Use the picture diagram to practice your knowledge of shipboard terms.

A cross sectional view of the RONALD H. BROWN.

A cross sectional view of the RONALD H. BROWN.

The floor of the ship is called the DECK. Stairs to the eight different levels are called LADDERS. The ceiling is called the OVERHEAD and the hallway is called the PASSAGEWAY. When seas are choppy, you hang onto RAILINGS along the passageway and ladders. Railings can keep you from falling.  There is a safety phrase aboard that goes, “One hand for you and one hand for the ship.”  That means it’s safer to always touch some part of the ship.

Let’s go down where food and supplies are STOWED or put away before being brought up to cook and eat. In the HOLD AND TANK TOP, two decks below the MAIN DECK you find the ship’s STORES, or storage area. There are dry stores, a chill box, a freeze box, a room for cleaning supplies, and another for ship’s supplies, including shelves of flags. That’s five different rooms for food or supplies on this bottom floor, the HOLD.  The temperature in the CHILL BOX keeps fruits and vegetables just above freezing, but the FREEZE BOX feels like being turned into instant ice.  Those two lockers have safety latches so you can’t get locked inside. Together they measure about 11 feet wide by 12 feet long by 8 feet high, the size of a medium size moving van.

The DRY STORES keep all the extra cereal, tea and dry foods that do not need to be chilled. It is bigger than the freezer locker, about 110 square feet, the size of a small garden shed.  It has over 60 shelves, each 2 feet by 4 feet by 2 feet, the size of a garment or hanging clothes type-moving box. Michael Moats, the General Vessel Assistant, pointed out the SOPROLE, a milk product substitute that doesn’t need chilling for a long time.  A phone and an elevator are handy outside the supply rooms.  The kitchen areas, “the Galley,” and dining room, “the Mess Deck,” are two ladders up, so the elevator and phone make checking on and moving supplies easier. There is also a HEAD, or toilet, on the MESS DECK. The chief steward, Richard Whitehead, mentioned that in the GALLEY the safety bars on the ship’s stoves are called SEA RAILS.  A great reference for these and many other ship terms and the flag alphabet is http://www.schoonerman.com/sailingterms/. Time for more ship term practice!

The RONALD H. BROWN is 274 feet long and sails worldwide supporting our scientific understanding of the world’s oceans and climate.  The ship was commissioned, at a big birthday-like celebration, on July 19, 1997, in honor of the late Secretary of Commerce, Ronald H. Brown. To commission a ship is to put it into service at sea.  The ship carries six NOAA Corps officers, 20 crewmembers, and a maximum of 33 scientists.  The ship has two monster motors that give power to the ship.  Each one has the power of 3,000 horses pulling a load, or 3,000 hp. Top speed is 15 knots or fifteen nautical miles per hour. That’s a little faster than a car going 17 miles per hour, mph.  The ship makes 5,000 gallons of drinkable water a day just like the rain purifies water, by evaporation and condensation. We use about 4,000 gallons a day here.  Since we can only make water thirteen miles away from shore we need to not waste our water supply.

Interview with Commander Stacy Birk, Executive Officer 

Commander Stacy Birk said, “It’s a tough life at sea,” so she really tries to make life on the RONALD H. BROWN valuable and meaningful for all hands.  Stacy is the Executive Officer, XO. As the captain’s back up, the XO is boss in the captain’s absence.  She manages people, deals with people’s salaries and serves as safety officer while the ship sails from Charleston, SC, for about ten months of the year.  In elementary school Stacy enjoyed the books Island of the Blue Dolphins and I, Nathaniel Bowditch. This California surfer girl completed college and joined the Coast Guard Reserves.  She actually sailed around the Channel Islands.

As a personnel manager, Stacy hires people and evaluates them, like a teacher gives grades. As a safety officer, the XO helps people follow the rules, such as not wearing open toe shoes or not leaving kitchen cups around the ship or showing up at the wrong place for drills. You might compare this to a parent making sure rules are followed. She does everything possible to be fair with people. Stacy’s science background and sailing experience help her make accurate observations.  Her uniformed service as a NOAA Corps Officer and her rank as XO fit with her respect of the sea from childhood.  Not everyone has such a clear direction from youth.  She just celebrated her 19th wedding anniversary and suggested to students, “Visit ships in port in San Francisco, explore the TECH museums or practice flag signals,” to grow in ocean knowledge.

XO, Stacy Birk, during the Port Authority passport-clearing trip at Marsh Harbor, Abaco Island, Bahamas

XO, Stacy Birk, during the Port Authority passport-clearing trip at Marsh Harbor, Abaco Island, Bahamas

Assignment and question of the day:  Use as many of the ship terms in place of the land names.  Example:  Instead of saying, “I’m walking down the hall,” say “I’m walking down the passageway.” BONUS: Check out that website to learn more ship terms.  What is the perimeter of the CHILL BOX and FREEZE BOX together?  Hint: Check the length and width of both boxes.

Personal Log – Vince Rosato 

After a great night’s sleep I learned at breakfast that a small shark was sighted during the night as the CTD was at the surface. I also found out about an awesome website, http://www.ngsednet.org/oceans, that has pictures taken by students from my previous expedition to the Channel Islands with National Geographic.  You will see more critters on that site, for those interested.  In addition, over 7,000 living organisms will be under investigation on the RONALD H. BROWN’s next cruise.  I took a tour of engineering today, thanks to Chief Engineer Frank Dunlap.  The engineering department powers and maintains all systems on the ship; something like the Corps Yard does for our District.  Juliet, the flat person, took some pictures with two of our Southampton college graduates and with a few of the people on Stuart Cunningham’s Mooring Team.  Keep up your journal entries and emails.

Personal Log – Kimberly Pratt 

Hi all. Last night I saw two Mahi Mahi fish, which they also call dolphins or dolphinfish.  They were swimming along side of the ship and at first I thought they were sharks!  They certainly are beautiful.  Yesterday the scientists from the United Kingdom worked on moorings all day so I got some time off.  Today we’re busy again doing CTD casts and my job lately has been “cast cop”, which means I log all the data.  The weather continues to be nice, although today we went through a squall (which is a storm) and now it’s overcast outside.  Also today we received a distress call from a Catamaran that was taking on water, so we proceeded to go to help, but the Coast Guard was on their way and they also called a tow service from a nearby island to help them.  It sure added some excitement into our day!  With less than a week to go, things have certainly been busy!

Vince Rosato and Kim Pratt, March 19, 2006

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Vince Rosato & Kim Pratt
Onboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown
March 9 – 28, 2006

Mission: Collect oceanographic and climate modeling data
Geographical Area: Barbados, West Indies
Date: March 19, 2006

A view of the RON BROWN from the Zodiac (a small boat).

A view of the RON BROWN from the Zodiac (a small boat).

Science and Technology Log: The “Way Cool” Factor 

Today I spoke to Lisa Beal who introduced me to the “Way Cool” factor of the science we’re doing. I kept asking the question… why?… why?…why?… and now I realize how what we’re doing makes sense. This is a physical oceanography trip and it’s easy to get confused by the testing, measuring and chemistry that we’re doing.

So, the Way Cool Factor: The ocean has many currents, or rivers, running through it.  Some vary with the seasons and are called inter-annual (more than one time per year).  What is measured is the circulation and overturning of the ocean. We need to measure this overturning of water because it affects our climate and considering that two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, that’s important to know. Also, water masses have separate identities.  They all have a unique signature that is determined by the salinity (salt content) and temperature.  It’s sort of like a fingerprint.  These water masses travel all over the ocean in both a horizontal flow and a vertical flow.  Scientists track these water masses as they flow around the ocean.

What’s really cool is some of these water masses are over 100 years old.  For instance, North Atlantic Deep Water starts at the North Pole and travels all around the Pacific and even in the Indian Ocean and back again.  It’s sort of like a migration of water.  The colder (measured by temperature) and more dense (measured by salinity) water sinks to the bottom and scientists can then follow it around the globe.

Pretty interesting huh?  It helps make what we’re doing make sense.

rp_log4a

Dr. Molly Baringer, NOAA scientist

Interview with Dr. Molly Baringer, Chief Scientist  

Today I had the good fortune to sit and talk to Dr. Molly Baringer, Chief Scientist on the RON BROWN. Molly is an Oceanographer with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), based out of Miami, Florida.  She’s been with NOAA for 12 years and is currently working on the Deep Western Boundary Currents (DWBC) project.  The Deep Western Boundary Time Series, take her all over the Caribbean and into the Florida Straits taking measurements to measure the conductivity, salinity, temperature and depth of the ocean.  She is studying the currents, or the rivers, in the deep water of the ocean. This study has been on-going and it will really help the scientists understand the ocean better.

As a child, she always liked science.  She originally had a desire to be a neuroscientist and graduated from Tulane University where she was a premed/math major.  Her minor was in science.  She became a Research Assistant working with numerical models for a professor who was an oceanographer and, behold, her love for science coupled with the environment, became a perfect fit.

What she likes best about being a scientist is that she gets to be creative, learns new things every day, and she is valued for her thinking. She spends most of the day and sometimes nights on board the RON BROWN checking data, supervising casts, problem solving, and overseeing all the science that is happening.

The CTD seen here is just under the water’s surface.

The CTD seen here is just under the water’s surface.

While at sea she really looks forward to talking to her two children, Anna and John, and her husband (a computer scientist) who are awaiting her return.  While at home, she really likes to spend time with her family helping at their school, checking their homework, and going places and doing things.  Her hobbies are quilting, needlepoint, Bridge, and before she had her children, she and her husband used to golf approximately 3-4 times a week.

She hopes that eventually we’ll have an ocean observing program that will be institutionalized so we can continually monitor the state, or health, of our oceans.  She states that being a scientist is a great profession.  You get to be creative every day, you learn new things, and most of all you are valued for how you think.

Assignment:  Compare the movement of water masses of the Atlantic with the migration of gray whales. In your science logs, draw a picture of both.  Remember Gray Whales migrate (move) from Alaska (their feeding grounds in the summer) to Baja California warmer waters (for mating and calving) in the winter and back again.  North Atlantic Deep Water masses move from the North Pole south, into the Pacific and back again.

Personal Log – Kimberly Pratt 

Hi all. Until now Vince has been writing the scientific logs, but starting today I’ll be submitting them as well.  I’ve really missed discussing the science I’m learning with you.  I was really happy to talk to Dr. Beal who quite simply explained what we were doing.  It can get quite confusing and intimidating learning new things, but I’m adapting slowly.  The weather has been beautiful. Yesterday we deployed the Argo Buoy with New Haven’s name on it so we’ll be able to track it.  And we also deployed the drifter buoy that has been adopted by Cabello, Searles and Dr. Molly’s daughter’s school, Key Biscayne Community School. Today has been beautiful!  Awesome weather, beautiful blue water and we even got cell service!  I miss you all.  Hello students!  Keep e-mailing me and doing all your great work.  Remember you are the brightest, best and most confident fifth graders (soon to be sixth graders)!

Personal Log – Vince Rosato 

Thank you second grade reading buddies from Mrs. Mares class, for Juliet, the flat person, who has gotten in pictures with the drifter, visited the dining room, the bridge, the science lab and even went with the Zodiac party (speed boat) to get our passports cleared today. I’m sorry to report the laundry bag used to sink our Styrofoam cup mementos was lost at sea after ten years of loyal and faithful service.  We’re here off Abaco Island today. I looked out from the bridge deck into the starry night last night.  In pitch dark the vastness of the heavens is AWESOME!  It reminded me of camping in the mountains away from the city.  Clear views, crystal smooth water and imagine no television and only random music for three weeks.  I like it—very recollective.  Thanks, also to NHTA for the blue shirts showing our dedication to students as our special interest.  Finally, I was glad to call home today and find out in voice conversation all are well.

Vince Rosato and Kim Pratt, March 15, 2006

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Vince Rosato & Kim Pratt
Onboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown
March 9 – 28, 2006

Mission: Collect oceanographic and climate modeling data
Geographical Area: Barbados, West Indies
Date: March 13, 2006

Dr. Beale with “Cheesy Poofs.”

Dr. Beale with “Cheesy Poofs.”

Science and Technology Log  

You may recall from the previous log that the package, or CTD, contains “mostly” a rosette of polyvinyl chloride (PVC )bottles that collect water samples on the way up from the sea floor.  We have completed eight casts, which means we have dropped the package to the bottom eight times.  On Cast # 4, on the way up, a piece of equipment on the package broke.  On this Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) expedition scientists want to put as many devices on “the package” as possible. All of the measurements they are taking have some relationship to measuring the current, velocity, or flow of water masses.  Flow in deep water is a little like a river in the ocean, but not like the one in the film, Finding Nemo. Some of the devices measure the same thing as other instruments do, and are redundant, or duplicated, in case some device fails on the unit. A secondary reason for redundancy is to check the precision of calculations to the thousandth or even ten-thousandth place (.002 or .0005).  Other devices measure different things. For example, the altimeter measures distance to the bottom.  It is important because a device lowered from the ship does not necessarily go straight down like a nut dropping off a tree, but moves with the rocking of the ship and shifting of the current in any direction.  While the ship may show the ocean floor at say 5445 meters, the package may be over a sea mound—a big bump upward from the ocean floor—that registers 5300 meters.  Do you see the necessity of having an altimeter to monitor of ocean depth?  What the ship sees below may not be what the package has directly under it. Since it costs so much to send an expedition out, it makes sense to protect the instruments as well as to do as many measurements as possible in each cast.

In the center of the package is the biggest instrument of all, an acoustic current meter fondly nicknamed “Cheesy Poofs.”  Look at the photo… can you see why it has that name? On Cast # 5 Cheesy Poofs went “POOF!” and broke. The ocean is a harsh environment for man-made instruments.  They must be very strong because of the pressure, and very water-tight so they do not spring a leak. Poor Cheesy Poofs sprang a leak and didn’t work anymore.  It measured the speed of the current, or, the “motion of the ocean,” as Dr. Lisa Beal said, the operator of the instrument.  Luckily, Lisa had a spare instrument to replace Cheesy, so she and several technicians worked hard for three hours to remove one instrument and replace it with another.  Just one acoustic current meter costs $50,000!  So, “Cheesy Poofs” visited Davey Jones’ Locker, or the ocean depths. Observation and measurement are essential elements for scientific investigation.

Question of the Day:  What sorts of measurements need to be very precise in your daily life at school or home, and what tools make those measurements?

Dr. Shari Yvon-Lewis

Dr. Shari Yvon-Lewis

Interview with Dr. Shari Yvon-Lewis Lead CFC Scientist. 

Shari, a true steward of the planet, is the lead CFC Scientist on cruise RB-06-03, aboard the RONALD H. BROWN. She studies Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or more specifically, halocarbons, anything that has carbon and a halogen attached (one column left of inert gases on the Periodic Table). She hails from Chicopee, Massachusetts and grew up there. She received her undergraduate degree at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and doctoral degree at the University of Miami.

She wanted to use her chemistry not only in a laboratory but was inspired to apply it to natural systems.  Her work on this voyage is all about determining the age of deep water.  We are familiar with how the rings of a tree tell its age, and how the layers, or strata, of rock date the age of the earth. Tree rings are usually horizontal.  Rock strata are thin horizontal layers that show age vertically. Rock layers are more like ocean layers, except ocean layers are fat.  Ocean aging is found in the rising and sinking of warm and cold waters.  Shari is studying when the deep water was last at the surface—the zero age reference.  “Anything that is lower than the surface is older,” she explained.  This is not to be confused with how old the oceans are, an entirely different question.  Rather, if water sinks in one part of the ocean than it has to rise in another place, otherwise the dynamics of the ocean would more closely be like a pond, and it is not a pond. Wind controls the surface currents or water on top of the ocean, and temperature and salt concentrations controls the deep-water circulation.  The scientific name for deep-water circulation is ThermoHaline Circulation, THC, or Meridional Overturning Circulation, MOC.  This particular cruise gives Shari one of the best places to study and prove or disprove that HydroChloroFluroCarbons (HCFCs) can be used as age indicators, or as viable tracers of water mass motion.  If proven, these HCFCs, which are replacement refrigerants (what used to be Freon as in car air conditioning systems), propellants (like in aerosol spray cans) and foam blowing agents (like the material sprayed on ceilings), will help scientists understand the age of deep water from the time it was last at the surface.

What might a person studying such wonders enjoy in her recreational time?  Shari likes to family golf, read Stephen King horror stories and other thrillers, and listen to Barry Manilow.  She loves science and the mysteries of the earth.  She would love to completely know the “feedback” between the ocean and climate change, as science continues to be a motivating force in her life.  She encourages going to the beach and watching the tides ebb and flow, seeing the effect of the ocean and humbly realizing we are powerless against its force.  Shari has judged science fairs from middles schools through graduate school and has mentored graduate students, who are students who after college graduation work on master’s degrees. She has a graduate student, Julia O’Hern, working with her on this trip, who is sharing a cabin with mentor NOAA teacher, Kimberly Pratt.  Shari concluded our discussion by telling me what 4th and 5th graders and everyone can do to get interested in oceanography: “Enjoy the ocean and take care of it,” she said.

Personal log—Vince Rosato 

Hello, everyone. I have been absorbing information from crew, scientists, civilians, and officers and been very busy during my shift helping scientists with getting samples and analyzing them.  I’m learning with Kim ways to put this knowledge into practice in the classroom.  Your email questions about the ship and the science, especially from your ocean books and logs, you’re your tracking our journey are filling my days with variety.  What is especially exciting to me is that misconception after misconception is being laid aside for truer models of what really is.  For example, I never thought of surface flow of water being driven differently than deeper water currents. Another insight was about what seafaring life is really like and the type of teamwork, community, and cooperation it fosters. In fact, it supports Searles’ “cooperation,” as the character education virtue of the month.  In participating in making measurements with so many specialized instruments, my uncle’s statement, “With the right tool you can do any job,” makes so much more sense.

I’d like to share something that I learned as a tribute for all future seafaring enthusiasts.  Officers, crews, and sailors worldwide have rituals not only for proper decorum, as at watch change, but also to inspire cooperation, and lift the spirits for those who live at sea away from family for months at a time.  One of the spirit-lifting rituals from maritime history was for those who were sailing over the equator for the first time.  To “measure” the courage of the sailors, so to speak, each one had to endure a rite of passage that graduated them from “pollywog” to “shellback.” Crewmates waited with fear and trepidation about what the latest rite of passage would entail. Recently, the challenge was for everyone to participate in a talent show.  Once you pass your “trial,” you receive a card of graduation that you have to carry with you.  If you are found without such documentation, you must endure the trial again!  It is reported by maritime historians and confirmed by Chief Boatswain, Bruce Cowden, also an accomplished cartoonist, that wars were interrupted by this longtime tradition.  He also mentioned that long ago, the shellback ritual was not so friendly.

Personal log—Kimberly Pratt 

Hi all. It’s been an interesting two days.  First of all, I’m trying to get used twelve-hour working shifts. It’s been difficult! Staying up late has been hard but it’s getting easier.  During my shift I’ve been helping collect water from casts, helping deploy the CTD, running “salts” which means putting water in an auto salinometer machine and testing it for conductivity.  I’ve also been conducting interviews, talking with crew and trying to figure out what’s been wrong with e-mails.  Today, after not hearing from my family for over a week, the Chief Scientist, Dr. Molly, let me call home.  Apparently my e-mails have been going out, but when people try to answer they are bounced back. Therefore, from now on use my AOL account, grnflea@aol.com, to contact me.  That way I am sure to hear from you.  The weather has been sunny, and yes, I did get sunburned yesterday. I also saw some flying fish and am always on the lookout for marine mammals.  Now with the e-mail situation taken care of, I look forward to hearing from my students and continuing to share more of what we’re learning from the sea!