Jennifer Fry: March 15, 2011, Oscar Elton Sette

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry

Onboard NOAA Ship, Oscar Elton Sette

March 12 – March 26, 2012

Mission: Fisheries Study
Geographical area of cruise: American Samoa
Date: March 15, 2012

Pago Pago, American Samoa

Science and Technology Log:

Nighttime Cobb Trawling : Day 4

We began the trawling around 8:30 p.m.  The data we collect tonight will replace the previous trawl on day 2 which was flawed in the method by which the experiment was collected. The Day 2 experiment was when the winch became stuck and the trawl net was left in the water well over 2 ½ hours, long past the 1 hour protocol.

Here’s is what the science team found.

Tonight the trawl nets went into the ocean and were timed as all the other times.

During the sorting we found some very interesting species of fish which included:

  • Pyrosomes: chordate/Tunicate
  • Two Juvenile cow fish (we placed them into a small saltwater tank to observe interesting species caught in the net.)

This is a great place to make further observations of these unique animals.

The data collected included:

Name of fish: Numbers Count Volume (milliliters) Mass (grams)
Myctophids 120 700 650
Non-Myctophids 148 84 115
Crustaceans 77 28 40
Cephalopods: 16 64 50
Gelatinous zooplankton 71 440 400
Misc. zooplankton n/a 840 900

The Cobb trawl net was washed, rinsed and the fish  strained through the net. They were then brought inside the web lab for further sorting.

The white-tailed tropic bird is a regular visitor to the South Pacific islands.

We were close to finishing the sorting, counting, and weighing when suddenly we heard something at the back door of the lab.  Fale, the scientist from American Samoa went to the door and proceeded to turn the latch, and slowly opened the door.  There huddled next to the wall, near some containers was a beautiful black and white Tropic bird, a common bird of this area.  Its distinctive feature was the single white tail feather that jutted out about 1 foot in length.  He looked just as surprised to see us and we were of him.  He did not make a move at all for about 10-15 minutes .  We took pictures and videos to mark the occasion, yet he still didn’t budge or act alarmed.

With a bit more time passing, he began to walk, or more like waddle like a duck. His ebony webbed feet made it difficult to maneuver over the open slats in the deck.  He attempted flight but appeared to get confused with the overhanging roof.

I quickly found a small towel and placing it over his head, gently carried him to a safe spot on the aft deck where he would have no trouble flying away.

The time was about 2:00 a.m. when we were distracted by the ship’s fire alarm, and  we quickly reported to our muster stations.  Luckily, there was no fire and  we returned resuming our trawl data collection.  Upon reaching the wet lab, we noticed at the stern of the ship, our newly found feathered friend had flown off into the dark night.

It was a great way to end our night with  research and early hour bird watching.  How lucky we all are to be in the South Pacific.

Animals Seen:

Ppyrosome

Pictured here is a Pyrosome which many came up in our Cobb net.

Cow fish

Our trawl net caught three juvunile cow fish specimans which were quickly placed in our observation tank for further study.

Tropical bird

The Tropic bird, with its distinctive long tail feather, is common in the South Pacific.

Jennifer Fry: March 11, 2011, Oscar Elton Sette

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry

Onboard NOAA Ship, Oscar Elton Sette

March 12 – March 26, 2012

Mission: Fisheries Study
Geographical area of cruise: American Samoa
Date: March 11, 2012

Pago Pago, American Samoa

A brief history of American Samoa is rich and varied.  The highlights include:

  •  The islands of American Samoa have a total land area of 76 square miles.

    Coconuts grow everywhere in American Samoa and contribute to the daily diet.
  • Pago Pago or Tutuila contains about two thirds of the total area and is home to 95% of the 65,000 islanders.
  • American Samoa is located 14 degrees south of the equator, and 172 degrees meridian west, and is the center of Polynesia.
  •  Located 2,300 miles southwest of Hawaii and 1,600 miles northeast of New Zealand, it forms a strategic midpoint on vital shipping and air routes.
  •  Samoan islands were “officially discovered” by Dutch Explorer Jacob Roggeveen in 1722.
  • Initial contact with the outside world came with the introduction of Christianity by John Williams of the London Missionary Society. .
  • Traditional Samoan society is based on a chieftain system of hereditary rank, and is known as the “Samoan Way” or fa’a Samoa way of life.
  • Local cultural institutions are the strongest single influence in American Samoa. The fa’a Samoa way of life stems from the aiga, the extended family with a common allegiance to the matai, the family chief who regulates the family’s activities.
  • Religious institutions are very influential in the community and the village minister is accorded a privileged position, equal in status to a chief or matai.
  • The Fa’a Samoa also reflects a communal lifestyle with non-public ownership and 90% of the communal lands controlled by the family matai.
  • American Samoa has been a territory of the United States since the signing of the April 17, 1900 Deed of Cession.
  • The Pago Pago Harbor area was the site of the coaling station and a naval base. During the War Years, the United States built roads, airstrips, docks and medical facilities exposing island residents to the American way of life.
  •  The government is divided into three branches, similar to the United States.
  • The Executive Branch is led by the Governor and Lieutenant Governor,
  •  the Legislative Branch is led by the local legislature, consisting of the House of Representatives, who are elected by popular vote and the Senate, who are represented by the village matai.
  • The judicial branch is part of the U.S. judicial system, and American Samoa has a non-voting representative elected to the U.S. Congress.

For more information about American Samoa and its history, go to: http://www.amsamoatourism.com/history.htm

Personal Log:

Since we arrived early, we were able to explore the island and its unique beauty.  We drove up to the National Park of American Samoa, Ma’Oputasi.  The vistas , beaches, flora, and fauna were breath-taking.  Here is a pictorial tour of the sites.

Pago Pago is home to the largest tuna cannery in American Samoa. Many islanders are employed here.
American Samoa celebrates 111th anniversary.

Jennifer Fry: March 9, 2012, Oscar Elton Sette

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship, Oscar Elton Sette
March 12 – March 26, 2012

Mission: Fisheries Study
Geographical area of cruise: American Samoa
Date: March 9, 2012

Personal Log

Pago Pago

With the morning light, the island’s landscape came into view.  Looking back toward land was the single road, a variety of buildings, consisting of numerous churches, restaurants, schools, and hotels.  I have come to learn that each small village has its own church and outdoor meeting hall.  Behind the buildings the topography extended upward forming a steep hillside covered with green, lush tropical plants, including a variety of palms and fruit trees laden with mangoes and papayas.

After a hearty Samoan breakfast with ten of the scientists that will be on the research vessel, we met with representatives from the local marine sciences community at the American Samoan government building.  Chickens, chickens, and a small clutch of baby chickens happily pecked on the lawn in front of the building which put a smile on my face.

These chickens found their home in front of the Government Building of Pago Pago, American Samoa.

Scientific Log

The chief scientist, Dr. Donald Kobayashi, began by introducing the team of scientists and gave a brief overview of the upcoming mission aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette.

The variety of investigations that will be conducted during these next 2 weeks which include:.

  1. Midwater Cobb trawls:  Scientists, John  Denton, American Museum of Natural History, and Aimiee Hoover, acoustics technician , Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research of the University of Hawaii, will conduct nighttime tows that will focus on epipelagic and pelagic juvenile reef fish and bottomfish species.
  1. Bot Cam: Using a tethered camera that is later released to float to the surface, and using acoustics–a.k.a. sonar readings–scientists Ryan Nichols, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center , Meagan Sundberg, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research of the University of Hawaii, and Jamie Barlow , Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, will collect samples of fish at selected sites during the cruise.
  1. CTD experiments: “Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth.”   At predetermined locations scientists Evan Howell, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, and Megan Duncan, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research at the University of Hawaii, will collect water samples called “profiles” taken of the water column at different depths.  This data is very important in determining the nutrients, chlorophyll levels, and other chemical make-up of the ocean water.
  1. Plankton tows:  Using plankton and Neuston nets, scientists Louise Giuseffi, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, and Emily Norton,University of Hawaii, Manoa, Biological Oceanography department, will conduct day and nighttime plankton tows focusing on plankton and microplastic marine debris.  Scientists will be  looking at a specific species of plankton called the copepod.  This study will also be collecting microplastic pieces, some of which are called “nurdles” which are small plastic pellets used in the manufacturing process. Unfortunately most plastic debris will never degrade and just break into smaller and smaller pieces potentially working their way into the food web, making this research and its findings very important to environmental studies.
  1. Handline fishing using a small boat, the Steel Toe: Scientists Ryan Nichols, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Meagan Sundberg, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research at the University of Hawaii, and Jamie Barlow, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, will conduct daily fishing expeditions obtaining scientific data on bottomfish, grouper and snapper species.   They will be focusing on life history factors including age, growth, male/female ratios, length and weight.  This is very exciting research since the last data collected from this region was from the 1970s and 80s.

I am very excited and fortunate to be part of this important scientific research project, and the significant data collected by the scientists.

Did You Know?
American Samoa pronunciation: The first syllable of “Samoa” is accented.
Pago Pago (capital of American Samoa): The “a”  pronunciation uses a soft “an” sound as in “pong.”

Animals Seen Today
Frigate birds
Common Myna
“Flying Foxes” Fruit bats
Kingfisher
Brown tree frog
Dogs, various
Chickens, various

Jennifer Fry: March 8, 2012, Oscar Elton Sette

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship, Oscar Elton Sette
March 12 – March 26, 2012

The NOAA ship Oscar Elton Sette arrives in Pago Pago, American Sa'moa
A tropical beach and azure seas in Pago Pago, American Sa'moa.

Mission: Fisheries Study
Geographical area of cruise: American Samoa
Date: March 8, 2012

Personal Log

Hawaii to Pago Pago

We arrived in Pago Pago yesterday around midnight.  A fierce storm had just passed through dumping rain everywhere, evidence of which still remained on the tarmac.  Exiting the plane came with a blast of hot, humid air like a furnace on full blast.

Through the thick air, we could barely make out a long string of lights illuminating the single road defining the island’s coastline.

As we queued up with our belongings, we were greeted by the Immigration & Customs agents of American Samoa.  All the officials greeted us with enthusiasm and welcomed us to their island.  Unlike our U.S.customs, each department wore a different colored uniform which consisted of a matching shirt and lava lava, which resembled a wrap around skirt.  Bags were inspected, questions were answered, and we were off to our next destination.

We arrived at Sadies by the Sea, a seaside hotel situated next to a shallow bay.

After settling into the room, I ventured out onto my little porch/ lanai to view the scene only to see giant “flying foxes” of the area. The enormous fruit bats that encircled overhead were common to the island.

I was lulled to sleep by soft lapping sounds of waves as they greeting the shore.  The excitement of the day soon turned to sleepy eyes and happy thoughts of what will come tomorrow and the next adventure.

Jennifer Fry, July 29, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 29, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge (0800) 
Wind speed: 10 knots
Wind direction: 345° from the north
Visibility: fog
Temperature: 14.1°C (dry bulb); 13.8°C (wet bulb)
Sea water temperature: 10.6°C
Wave height: 1 ft.
Swell direction: 320°
Swell height: 3-5 ft.
Air pressure: 1011.0 mb
Weather note: There are two temperature readings taken on the Miller Freeman. The dry bulb measures the current temperature of the air. The wet bulb measures the absolute humidity of the air; uses a thermometer wrapped in a wet cloth. The dry and wet temperatures together give the dew point and help to determine humidity.

Science and Technology Log 

Those aboard the Miller Freeman: including NOAA Corps, crew, and scientists were randomly selected to answer the following question.

How are science and the environment important to the work you do? 

Here are some of their responses:

Lisa Bonacci, Chief Scientist/Research Fish Biologist, M.S. Marine Biology   “As a Fisheries Biologist at NOAA I work in applied science. Our research provides information that managers and policy makers use to make important decisions at a national level. These decisions help the United States keep our fisheries sustainable and at the same time protect our ocean ecosystems.”
Lisa Bonacci, Chief Scientist/Research Fish Biologist, M.S. Marine Biology
“As a Fisheries Biologist at NOAA I work in applied science. Our research provides information that managers and policy makers use to make important decisions at a national level. These decisions help the United States keep our fisheries sustainable and at the same time protect our ocean ecosystems.”
Pat Maulden, Wiper, Engineering Department   “I like being part of the solution.  If you’re not part of the solution, you are part of the problem.”
Pat Maulden, Wiper, Engineering Department
“I like being part of the solution. If you’re not part of the solution, you are part of the problem.”
John Pohl, NOAA Oceanographer, B.S. Oceanography   “Every action has a consequence.  Science improves our understanding of the world around us and consequences of our actions in the natural world.  We are not separate from the environment in which we live. We can’t hold ourselves out of the natural world, or we will affect the balance.”
John Pohl, NOAA Oceanographer, B.S. Oceanography
“Every action has a consequence. Science improves our understanding of the world around us and consequences of our actions in the natural world. We are not separate from the environment in which we live. We can’t hold ourselves out of the natural world, or we will affect the balance.”
Steve DeBlois, NOAA Research Fish Biologist   “Science is a methodology by which we understand the natural world.”
Steve DeBlois, NOAA Research Fish Biologist
“Science is a methodology by which we understand the natural world.”
Jose Coito, Lead Fisherman   “I try to help the scientific research on the ship whenever I can. I enjoy my job.”
Jose Coito, Lead Fisherman
“I try to help the scientific research on the ship whenever I can. I enjoy my job.”
LTjg Jennifer King, NOAA Corps Officer, B.S. Marine Biology   “Science helps understand natural processes: how things grow, and how nature works. We need to help protect it. Science shows how in an ecosystem, everything depends on one another.”
LTjg Jennifer King, NOAA Corps Officer, B.S. Marine Biology
“Science helps understand natural processes: how things grow, and how nature works. We need to help protect it. Science shows how in an ecosystem, everything depends on one another.”
Steve Pierce, Physical Oceanographer, Oregon State University, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography “None of this research is possible without math.  My study is a cool application of math.”
Steve Pierce, Physical Oceanographer, Oregon State University, Ph.D. Physical Oceanography “None of this research is possible without math. My study is a cool application of math.”
John Adams, Ordinary Fisherman   “Science helps you understand why things go. The environment is really important to protect because it’s the only one we’ve got.”
John Adams, Ordinary Fisherman
“Science helps you understand why things go. The environment is really important to protect because it’s the only one we’ve got.”
LTjg Oliver Brown, NOAA Corps Navigation Officer, B.S. Geology   “Understanding the processes of today to predict and sustain the systems of tomorrow.  Anything you can study: fisheries, atmospheric or any “ology”, the ocean plays a part in it.”
LTjg Oliver Brown, NOAA Corps Navigation Officer, B.S. Geology
“Understanding the processes of today to predict and sustain the systems of tomorrow. Anything you can study: fisheries, atmospheric or any “ology”, the ocean plays a part in it.”
Adam Staiger, Second Cook   “Remember to clean up after yourself.”
Adam Staiger, Second Cook
“Remember to clean up after yourself.”
Francis Loziere, Able Seaman, B.S. Chemistry/Engineering   “Studying science can help foster original thinking.  We need original thinking to save the planet.”
Francis Loziere, Able Seaman, B.S. Chemistry/Engineering
“Studying science can help foster original thinking. We need original thinking to save the planet.”
Julia Clemons, Oceanographer, M.S. Geology   “Science helps us to better understand the world we live in so we are not ignorant and live in a more responsible and aware manner.”
Julia Clemons, Oceanographer, M.S. Geology
“Science helps us to better understand the world we live in so we are not ignorant and live in a more responsible and aware manner.”
Chris Grandin, DFO, Canadian Fisheries, Biologist, M.S. Earth & Ocean Sciences   “We’re here to keep tabs on the fish resources of our planet, to ensure that there will be fish for the future generations, and to sustain our ecology.  We all need to take responsibility.”
Chris Grandin, DFO, Canadian Fisheries, Biologist, M.S. Earth & Ocean Sciences
“We’re here to keep tabs on the fish resources of our planet, to ensure that there will be fish for the future generations, and to sustain our ecology. We all need to take responsibility.”
Dezhang Chu, NOAA fisheries, Physical Scientist, PhD Geophysics   “To study science you need devotion and dedication.  It’s not something you make a lot of money at, but you can contribute good things to human society.”
Dezhang Chu, NOAA fisheries, Physical Scientist, PhD Geophysics
“To study science you need devotion and dedication. It’s not something you make a lot of money at, but you can contribute good things to human society.”
Gary Cooper, Skilled Fisherman,   “I’ve always loved the sea. You get out of a job, what you put into it. Set your goals high and you’ll be successful.”
Gary Cooper, Skilled Fisherman,
“I’ve always loved the sea. You get out of a job, what you put into it. Set your goals high and you’ll be successful.”
Melanie Johnson, NOAA Fishery Biologist   “Taking care of our environment, it’s the right thing to do. We need to live responsibility and sustainably; we can’t over fish or litter our world. If you don’t want it in your backyard, don’t put it in the ocean.”
Melanie Johnson, NOAA Fishery Biologist
“Taking care of our environment, it’s the right thing to do. We need to live responsibility and sustainably; we can’t over fish or litter our world. If you don’t want it in your backyard, don’t put it in the ocean.”
Mark Watson, Wiper, Engineering Department   “Life and science go hand in hand; you can’t have one other the other.”
Mark Watson, Wiper, Engineering Department
“Life and science go hand in hand; you can’t have one other the other.”
Ed Schmidt, First Assistant Engineer, Relief Chief   “In my field of engineering, science and math go hand in hand. You have to have both. n the science side, there are relationships between different fluids, gases, and the theories behind what make the equipment work. You need to use math to find combustion rates, horsepower, electricity produced/consumed, and the list goes on and on. Without math and science I wouldn’t have a job.”
Ed Schmidt, First Assistant Engineer, Relief Chief
“In my field of engineering, science and math go hand in hand. You have to have both. On the science side, there are relationships between different fluids, gases, and the theories behind what make the equipment work. You need to use math to find combustion rates, horsepower, electricity produced/consumed, and the list goes on and on. Without math and science I wouldn’t have a job.”

The engineers aboard the Miller Freeman are a group of hard working people. There are always engineers on duty 24 hours/ day to ensure the ship is running properly. Jake DeMello, 2nd engineer, gave me a tour of the Miller Freeman’s engine room.  Jake attended California Maritime Academy where he received his Bachelor of Science degree in Marine Engineering. He has a 12-4 shift which means that he works from noon to 4:00 p.m. and then again from midnight to 4:00 a.m.

Jake DeMello stands by the desalination machine in the Miller Freeman’s engine room.
Jake DeMello stands by the desalination machine in the Miller Freeman’s engine room.

Before taking the job aboard NOAA’s Miller Freeman, Jake worked on a Mississippi River paddle boat traveling from New Orleans north past St. Louis through the rivers’ many dams and locks.  He reminisced on one memorable moment aboard the paddleboat; the day he saw Jimmy Dean, the famous singer and sausage maker.  Jake and the other engineers do many jobs around the ship including checking the fuel and water levels throughout the day and fixing anything that needs repairing.  The Miller Freeman is equipped with a machine shop, including lathe and welding equipment.

Among the jobs of the engineer is reporting daily fuel levels including:

  • Hydraulic oil used for daily fish trawls, CTD, gantry, and winch operations.
  • Gasoline used for the “Fast Recovery Boat.”
  • Diesel fuel used for the main engine.
  • Lube oil used for main engines and generators.
We say good-bye to the hake both big and small.
We say good-bye to the hake both big and small.

Fresh water production: The ship’s water desalination machine transforms 2,000 gallons of sea water into fresh drinking water daily. The ship’s water tanks hold a total of 7,350 gallons of fresh water. Another job of the engineer is taking soundings throughout the day/night. Taking soundings means measuring the levels of liquid in the tanks.  There are tanks on both the starboard and port sides of the ship. The engineer needs to be sure that fuel levels are evenly distributed so that the ship will be evenly balanced in the ocean.

Vocabulary: Starboard: right side of the ship. Port: left side of the ship.

Personal Log 

I write this off the coast of Oregon in the North Pacific Ocean.  It has been an amazing 17 days aboard the Miller Freeman. I feel honored to have participated in NOAA’s Teacher at Sea program.  It has truly changed the way I look at science in the classroom and has given be a better understanding of how scientists conduct research on a day to day basis in the field. I am excited to have made so many learning connections between the real world of scientific study and the elementary school science classroom.  I thank NOAA, the Teacher at Sea program and the entire crew, NOAA Corps, and scientists aboard the Miller Freeman for this opportunity.

My profound gratitude goes out to the dedicated science team aboard the Miller Freeman for all they have taught me.
My profound gratitude goes out to the dedicated science team aboard the Miller Freeman for all they have taught me.

Jennifer Fry, July 28, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 28, 2009

Map of the world showing longitude and latitude lines
Map of the world showing longitude and latitude lines

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed:  17 knots
Wind direction: 345° from the north
Visibility: 8 nautical miles /clear
Temperature: 16.8°C (dry bulb); 11.6°C (wet bulb)
Sea water temperature: 15.5°C
Wave height: 3-5 ft.
Air pressure: 1012.9 millibars
Weather note: Millibars is a metric unit used to measure the pressure of the air.

Science and Technology Log 

Weather Instruments and Predicting Weather 

Lt Oliver Brown, surrounded by navigational tools, and Fishery Scientist Steve DeBlois make observations on the bridge of the Miller Freeman.
Lt Oliver Brown, surrounded by navigational tools, and Fishery Scientist Steve DeBlois make observations on the bridge of the Miller Freeman.

Everything that happens out at sea is dependent upon the weather forecasts.  Throughout history man has used a variety of instruments to acquire accurate weather information.  The Miller Freeman is equipped with state of art weather reporting instruments. Every 3 hours weather data is sent to the National Weather Service to help predict the weather at sea.  Once again accuracy in reporting data is paramount.

Global Position: The Miller Freeman has several methods by which to determine longitude and latitude, which is our position in the ocean or on land.  There are 2 G.P.S. systems on the bridge, a magnetic compass, a gyro compass, and radar. These instruments help determine the ship’s position.

True north: The actual location of a point on the earth related to the north pole.

A Gyrocompass with cardinal headings including north, south, east, and west
A Gyrocompass with cardinal headings including north, south, east, and west

Magnetic north: Caused by the magnetic pull on the earth.  Magnetic north heading is different depending on where you are on the earth, for instance, Magnetic north in Oregon has a variation of 16.45°east from true north. Southern California has a variation of 13.3° east from true north.

Temperature: Measured by a thermometer, units used are Celsius. Dry bulb: Measures air temperature.  Wet bulb:  Uses a thermometer wrapped in a wet cloth. The dry and wet temperatures together give the dew point and help to determine humidity.

Wind Speed: Measured in knots using an anemometer, or estimated by using the Beaufort scale. The Beaufort scale uses observations of the sea surface, and the effects of wind on people or objects aboard ship to estimate the wind speed.

Wind Direction: Is measured by what direction in which the wind is coming.

Cloud Height/Type: Is measured visually.

Cloud Type: Is measured visually using a variety of names of clouds depending on their patterning and altitude.

Magnetic compass
Magnetic compass

Visibility: Is measured by estimating how much of the horizon can be seen.

Wave Direction: measured visually from the direction the wave comes.

Wave Height: The vertical distance between trough (bottom of the wave) and crest (top of the wave) and is usually measured in feet.

Swell Direction/ Height: Measured visually usually in feet.

Personal Log 

I have enjoyed my time on the bridge of the Miller Freeman immensely.  I have a better understanding of the weather instruments used onboard and am getting better at spotting whales and identifying birds. I want to thank the entire NOAA Corps Officers who have taught me so much about how navigation and weather work aboard the Miller Freeman.

Crewmember John Adams uses on-board weather instruments to record hourly weather readings that are then sent to National Weather Service.
Crewmember John Adams uses on-board weather instruments
to record hourly weather readings that are then sent to National
Weather Service.
An anemometer, which measures wind speed
An anemometer, which measures wind speed

Jennifer Fry, July 27, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 27, 2009

The CTD, resembling a giant wedding cake constructed of painted steel, measures the composition of the water, salinity, temperature, oxygen levels, and water pressure.
The CTD, resembling a giant wedding cake constructed of painted steel, measures the composition of the water, salinity, temperature, oxygen levels, and water pressure.

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 13 knots
Wind direction: 003°from the north
Visibility: clear
Temperature: 13.6°C (dry bulb); 13.2°C (wet bulb)
Sea water temperature: 15.1°C
Wave height: 1-2 ft.
Swell direction: 325°
Swell height: 4-6 ft.

Science and Technology Log 

Each night beginning at around 9:00 p.m. or 21:00, if you refer to the ship’s clock, Dr. Steve Pierce begins his research of the ocean. He is a Physical Oceanographer and this marks his 11th year of conducting CTD, Conductivity, Temperature, and Density tests.

It takes 24 readings per second as it sinks to the seafloor. The CTD only records data as it sinks, insuring the instruments are recording data in undisturbed waters. For the past 11 years Dr. Pierce and his colleagues have been studying density of water by calculating temperature and salinity in different areas of the ocean. By studying the density of water, it helps to determine ocean currents. His data helps us examine what kind of ocean conditions in which the hake live. Using prior data, current CTD data, and acoustic Doppler current profiler, a type of sonar, Dr. Pierce is trying to find a deep water current flowing from south to north along the west coast.  This current may have an effect on fish, especially a species like hake.

This map illustrates part of the area of the hake survey.
This map illustrates part of the area of the hake survey.

Dr. Steve Pierce reminds us, “None of this research is possible without math. Physical oceanography is a cool application of math.” Another testing instrument housed on the CTD apparatus is the VPR, Visual Plankton Recorder.  It is an automatic camera that records plankton, microscopic organisms, at various depths.  The scientists aboard the Miller Freeman collect data about plankton’s feeding habits, diurnal migration, and their position in the water column.  Diurnal migration is when plankton go up and down the water column to feed at different times of day (see illustration below).  Plankton migration patterns vary depending on the species.The scientists aboard the Miller Freeman followed the east to west transect lines conducting fishing trawls. The first one produced 30 small hake averaging 5 inches in length.  The scientists collected marine samples by weighing and measuring them.

Dr. Steve Pierce  at his work station and standing next to the CTD on a bright sunny day in the Northern Pacific Ocean.
Dr. Steve Pierce at his work station and standing next to the CTD on a bright sunny day in the Northern Pacific Ocean.
This illustration depicts the diurnal migration of plankton.
This illustration depicts the diurnal migration of plankton.

Personal Log 

It was extremely foggy today.  We traversed through the ocean evading many obstacles including crab and fishing buoys and other small boats.  Safety is the number one concern on the Miller Freeman. The NOAA Corps Officers rigorously keep the ship and passengers out of harm’s way.  I am grateful to these dedicated men and women.  LTjg Jennifer King, marine biologist and NOAA Corps officer says, “Science helps understand natural process: how things grow and how nature works. We need to protect it.  Science shows how in an ecosystem, everything depends on one another.”

Jennifer Fry, July 26, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 26, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 10 knots
Wind direction: 100° [from the east]
Visibility: fog
Temperature: 13.5°C (dry bulb); 13.5°C (wet bulb)
Sea water temperature: 10°C
Wave height: 1ft.
Swell direction: 315° Swell height:  6 ft.

Here I am checking HAB samples.
Here I am checking HAB samples.

Science and Technology Log 

We conducted a number of HAB, Harmful Algal Bloom sample tests. The Harmful Algal Bloom test takes samples at predetermined location in our study area. The water is filtered to identify the presence of toxic plants (algae) and animals (zooplankton). The plankton enter the food chain specifically through clams and mussels and can be a possible threat to human health.

We also conducted XBTs, Expendable Bathythermograph; and one  fishing trawl net. The trawling was successful, catching hake, squid, and Myctophids.  Fishery scientist, Melanie Johnson collected specific data on the myctophids’ swim bladder.  The swimbladder helps fish regulate buoyancy.  It acts like a balloon that inflates and deflates depending on the depth of the fish. Sharks on the other hand have no swim bladder. They need to swim to maintain their level in the water. Marine mammals such as dolphins and whales have lungs instead of a swimbladder.  Most of the sonar signal from the fish comes from their swimbladder.  The study of the swimbladder’s size helps scientists determine how deep the fish are when using the sonar signals and how strong their sonar signal is likely to be.

Commander Mike Hopkins, LTjg Oliver Brown, and crewmember John Adams conduct a marine mammal watch on the bridge before a fishing trawl.
Commander Mike Hopkins, LTjg Oliver Brown, and crewmember John Adams conduct a marine mammal watch on the bridge before a fishing trawl.

The scientists tried to conduct a “swim through” camera tow, but each time it was aborted due to marine mammals in the area of the net. During the “Marine Mammal Watch” held prior to the net going in the water, we spotted humpback whales. They were observed breeching, spouting, and fluking. The humpback then came within 30 feet of the Miller Freeman and swam around as if investigating the ship.

Animals Seen Today 
Fish and animals trawled: Hake, Squid (Cephalopod), and Myctophids.
Marine Mammals: Humpback whale.
Birds: Albatross, Fulmar, and Shearwater.

Jennifer Fry, July 25, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 25, 2009

Black-footed Albatross
Black-footed Albatross

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 10 knots
Wind direction: 355°from the north
Visibility: fog
Temperature: 11°C (dry bulb); 10°C (wet bulb)
Sea water temperature: 9.2°C
Wave height: 2 ft.
Swell direction: 310°
Swell height: 5 ft.

Science/Technology Log 

Three fishing trawls were conducted today. We took biological samples from the hake collected. The following is a list of other fish retrieved:

  • Octopus: 1
  • Squid: 47
  • Glass shrimp: 50
  • Shrimp (another species): 3
  • Bird observations: Many bird species are seen around the boat each time there is a fishing trawl net. They range in size and flying pattern. Here are a few of them.
  • Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes): Mostly dark in all plumage, or feathers; White undertail and white may be on belly; Range: Seen around the year off west coast in spring and summer; Winters in Hawaii.

While observing the albatross and fulmar fly, I noticed that they glide gracefully across the waves gently touching the tip of their wing into the water. During take off, the albatross uses his giant webbed feet to push off by “running” on the surface of the water. Similarly during landing; his feet appear to “run” on the water which seems to slow him down.

  • Sooty shearwater
    Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus): Whitish underwing contrasts with overall dark plumage; Range: breeds in southern hemisphere; Abundant off west coast, often seen from shore.
Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus): Blackish-brown above; white wing underparts, a bit mottled; Range: spends summers in northern Pacific; winters in Chile
Pink-footed Shearwater (P. creatopus): Blackish-brown; white wing underparts, a bit mottled; Range: spends summers in northern Pacific; winters in Chile
Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis): Gull-sized seabird; rapid wingbeats alternating with gliding over waves; color is rather uniform with not strong contrasts; gray overall with whitish undersides; range: Northern Pacific Ocean and Northern Atlantic Ocean; Breeds: Aleutian Islands, Alaska.
Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis): Gull-sized seabird; rapid wingbeats alternating with gliding over waves; color is rather uniform with not strong contrasts; gray overall with whitish undersides; range: Northern Pacific Ocean and Northern Atlantic Ocean; Breeds: Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

Fun on-line NOAA activities such as Make your own Compass, Tying Knots, Learn about Nautical Charts, Be a Shipwreck detective, and Make a tornado in a bottle.

Commander Mike Hopkins overlooks the North Pacific Ocean just off the Oregon Coast from the bridge. His job is to make sure everything aboard the Miller Freeman is running smoothly.
Commander Mike Hopkins overlooks the North Pacific Ocean just off the Oregon Coast from the bridge. His job is to make sure everything aboard the Miller Freeman is running smoothly.

NOAA Commissioned Corps Officers are a vital part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Officers provide support during NOAA missions  ranging from launching a weather balloon at the South Pole, conducting hydrographic or fishery surveys in Alaska, maintaining buoys in the tropical Pacific, flying snow surveys and into hurricanes. NOAA Corps celebrates its 202nd birthday this year.

Animals Seen Today 
Fish and other trawled animals: Hake, Octopi, Squid, and Shrimp.
Birds: Fulmar, Shearwater, Albatross, and Gulls.

Jennifer Fry, July 24, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 24, 2009

Pacific White-Sided Dolphins
Pacific White-Sided Dolphins

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 24 knots
Wind direction: 355° from the north
Visibility: clear
Temperature: 17.3°C (dry bulb); 15.5°C (wet bulb)
Sea water temperature: 9.8°C
Wave height: 3 ft.
Swell direction: 350°
Swell height: 5-6 ft.

Science and Technology Log 

There is an abundance of marine life in the ocean today: sightings include a humpback whale breaching and spy-hopping.  Breaching is when a whale jumps out of the water.  Spy-hopping is when the whale’s head comes out of the water vertically and “takes a peek” at his surroundings. We also sighted the Pacific white-sided dolphins that appeared to be “playing” with the ship.  They would swim perpendicularly to the ship’s hull and at the last minute; veer away at a 90° angle. The dolphins were also swimming alongside the bow and the side of the ship.

Beautiful view
Beautiful view

The sonar signals indicate an abundance of marine life under the sea and the presence of marine mammals helps us draw that conclusion. All that life is probably their prey. We made 2 fishing trawls which included hake and 2 small squid, split nose rockfish, and dark, blotched rockfish. That was the first time I had seen rockfish.   They are primarily a bottom dweller. Scientists don’t want to catch too many rockfish because they tend to be over fished and their numbers need to be protected. Also, we only want to catch the fish species we are surveying, in this case, hake. The scheduled camera tow was cancelled because we did not want to catch marine mammals.  The camera tow is described as a net sent down to depth that is opened on both sides.  It takes video of the fish swimming by.  This helps the scientists determine what species of fish are at each particular depth, during which the fish are not injured for the most part.

Personal Log 

It was very exciting to see the humpback whale and dolphins today.  They appeared to be very interested in the ship and it looked like they were playing with it.  It was a perfect day with the sun shining and calm seas.

Question of the Day 
What are ways scientists determine the health of the ocean?

Did You Know? Breaching is when a whale jumps out of the water.   Spy-hopping is when the whale’s head comes out of the water vertically and “takes a peek” at his surroundings.

Animals Seen Today 
Marine mammals: Pacific white-sided dolphins, California sea lion, and Humpback whale: spy hopping.
Birds: Fulmar, Shearwater, Albatross, and Skua.
Fish: Hake, Split nose rockfish, and Dark Blotched rockfish.

Ode to the Miller Freeman 
As the chalky white ship, the Miller Freeman cuts through the icy blue waters of the North Pacific Ocean,
I stand in wonderment at all I see before me.
A lone Pacific white-sided dolphin suddenly surfaces over the unending mounds of waves.
A skua circles gracefully negotiating up and over each marine blue swell
Off in the distance, the band of fog lurks cautiously, waiting its turn to silently envelop the crystal blue sky.
Watching this beauty around me I have arrived, I am home.

Jennifer Fry, July 23, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 23, 2009

Here I am in the lab helping with the HAB samples.
Here I am in the lab helping with the HAB samples.

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 15 knots
Wind direction: 350°from the north
Visibility: clear
Temperature: 12.0°C (dry bulb); 11.8°C (wet bulb)
Sea water temperature: 9.7°C
Wave height: 2 ft.
Swell direction: 000°
Swell height: 4 ft.

Science/Technology Log 

We began the day conducting 2 HAB (Harmful Algal Bloom) sample tests of the ocean. This tests the amount of plankton in the water.  Scientists test this because some plankton can carry harmful toxins that can get into the fish and sea life we eat, such as clams. Later we sighted numerous marine mammals including: 2 humpback whales (breaching), 12 Pacific white-sided dolphins, and California sea lions.

Acoustic data
Acoustic data

We made two trawls which provided plenty of hake for us to observe, measure, and collect data.  Acoustic Judging:  One important aspect of the acoustic hake survey is what scientists do when not trawling.  There is a process called judging that fishery biologist, Steve De Blois spends most of his day doing. While looking at acoustic data, he draws regions around schools of fish or aggregations of other marine organisms and assigns species identification to these regions based on what he sees on the acoustic display and catch information gathered from trawls.  He uses 4 different frequencies to “read” the fish signals—each shows different fish characteristics. Having started at the Alaska Fishery Science Center in 1991, this is Steve’s 19th year of participating in integrated acoustic and trawl surveys and his eighth acoustic survey studying Pacific hake. He’s learned how to read their signs with the use of sonar frequencies and his database. Steve tells us about the importance of science: “Science is a methodology by which we understand the natural world.” 

Pacific white-sided dolphin
Pacific white-sided dolphin

New Term/Phrase/Word Pelagic: relating to, living, or occurring in the waters of the ocean opposed to near the shore. In terms of fish, this means primarily living in the water column as opposed to spending most of their time on the sea floor. 

Steve De Blois, NOAA Research Fishery Biologist, shares acoustic datawith Julia Clemons, NOAA Oceanographer, aboard the Miller Freeman.
Steve De Blois, NOAA Research Fishery Biologist, shares acoustic data
with Julia Clemons, NOAA Oceanographer, aboard the Miller Freeman.

Did You Know?
Northern fur seals are pelagic for 7-10 months per year. Pelagic Cormorant birds live in the ocean their entire life.

Humpback whales
Humpback whales

Animals Seen Today 
Humpback whales (2), Pacific white-sided dolphin (12), California sea lions (6), and Northern fur seal.

Humpback whale breaching
Humpback whale breaching

In Praise of…Harmful Algal Bloom Samples 
Crystal cold ocean water running through clear plastic pipes
Be patient as containers are carefully rinsed out three times.
The various sized bottles are filled with the elixir of Poseidon
Accurate measuring is essential.
Consistency ensures accurate results.
Once the water is filtered, tweezers gently lift plankton-laden filter papers.
All samples await analysis in the 20°F freezer.
Data from each test is later recorded;
Levels of domoic acid,  Chlorophyll,
And types, populations, and species of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Jennifer Fry, July 22, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 22, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 13 knots
Wind direction: 003°from the north
Visibility: clear
Temperature: 13.6°C (dry bulb); 13.2°C (wet bulb)
Sea water temperature: 15.1°C
Wave height: 1-2 ft.
Swell direction: 325°
Swell height: 4-6 ft.

Science/Technology Log 

Today we did a fishing trawl off the coast of Oregon. First, the scientists used multiple acoustic frequencies of sound waves.  After analyzing the sonar data, the scientists felt confident that they would get a good sampling of hake. The chief scientist called the bridge to break our transect line (the planned east/west course) and requested that we trawl for fish.

Here is an acoustic image (2 frequencies) as seen on the scientist’s screen. The bottom wavy line is the seafloor, and the colored sections above are organisms located in the water column.
Here is an acoustic image (2 frequencies) as seen on the scientist’s screen. The bottom wavy line is the seafloor, and the colored sections above are organisms located in the water column.

The NOAA Corps officers directed operations from the trawl house while crew members worked to lower the net to the target depth.  The fishing trawl collected specimens for approximately 20 minutes. After that time, the crew members haul in the net. The scientists continue to record data on the trawl house.

The trawl net sits on the deck of the Miller Freeman and is ready to be weighed and measured.
The trawl net sits on the deck of the Miller Freeman and is ready to be weighed and measured.

Today’s total catch fit into 2 baskets, a “basket” is about the size of your laundry basket at home, approximately 25-35 kilos. Included in the sample were some very interesting fish:

  • Viper fish
  • Ctenophores or comb jellies
  • Larval stage Dover sole, lives at the sea bottom
  • Jelly fish, several varieties (*Note: Jelly fish are types of zooplankton, which means they are animals floating in the ocean.)
  • Hake, approx. 30 kilos

The scientists made quick work of weighing and identifying each species of fish and then began working with the hake. Each hake was individually measured for length and weighed.  The hake’s stomach and otolith were removed. These were carefully labeled and data imputed into the computer.  Scientists will later examine the contents of the stomach to determine what the hake are eating. The otolith (ear bone) goes through a process by which the ear bone is broken in half and then “burnt.” The burning procedure allows one to see the “age rings” much like how we age a tree with its rings.

Personal Log 

A view from the trawl house during a fishing trawl.
A view from the trawl house during a fishing trawl.

Everyone works so very hard to make the Hake Survey successful.  All hands on the ship do a specific job, from cook to engineer to captain of the ship.  It is evident that everyone takes their job seriously and is good at what they do. I feel very fortunate to be part of this very important scientific research project.

 

 

A viper fish
A viper fish

Did You Know? 
Bird facts: An albatross’ wing span can be 5 feet, which equals one very large sea bird. A shearwater is slimmer and smaller yet resembles an albatross.

Animals Seen Today 
Ctenophore, Jelly Fish, Dover sole, Hake, Humboldt squid, Fulmar, Albatross, Gull, and Shearwater.

Here is something interesting, a hake with two mouths discovered in the trawl net.
Here is something interesting, a hake with two mouths discovered in the trawl net.
A hake and its stomach contents, including krill, smaller hake and possibly an anchovy
A hake and its stomach contents, including krill, smaller hake and possibly an anchovy
Dover Sole, larval stage
Dover Sole, larval stage†
NOAA Oceanographer John Pohl and NOAA Fish Biologist Melanie Johnson discuss data about the fish collected.
NOAA Oceanographer John Pohl and NOAA Fish Biologist Melanie Johnson discuss data about the fish collected.

Jennifer Fry, July 21, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 21, 2009

Boatswain Matt Faber, and Skilled Fisherman, Gary Cooper, tend to full net of hake from one of the day’s trawl.
Boatswain Matt Faber, and Skilled Fisherman, Gary Cooper, tend to full net of hake from one of the day’s trawl.

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 10 knots
Wind direction: 011°from the north
Visibility: cloudy
Temperature: 16.2°C (dry bulb); 14.9°C (wet bulb)
Weather note: When you speak of wind direction you are talking about the direction in which the wind is coming. 

Science/Technology Log 

You can see by the weather data above that the seas were much calmer today. We were able to conduct 3 fishing trawls amounting to several thousand kilograms of hake. Once the fish were hauled onto the deck, we began measuring, weighing, dissecting, and removing otoliths, ear bones, for age analysis. I removed my first pair of otoliths today.  The best part of the day was the last and final trawl. We collected approximately 3,000 pounds of Humboldt squid which equals 444 squid.  The math problem to calculate is… “How much would one squid weigh in our catch?”

Julia Clemons, NOAA Fisheries and Jennifer Fry, TAS pictured with Humbolt squid. Today’s catch totaled 444 squid.
Julia Clemons, NOAA Fisheries and Jennifer Fry, TAS pictured with Humbolt squid. Today’s catch totaled 444 squid.

Personal Log 

What strikes me today is just how dedicated the scientists and crew are to their jobs.  Everyone has a specific job aboard the Miller Freeman that they take seriously.

Question of the Day 

Can you use squid ink as you do regular ink? Is there a market for squid inked products such as cards?

New Term/Phrase/Word 

Cusk eel

Animals Seen Today 

Fish:  Humbolt squid, Hake, Iridescent Cusk eel (see photo), Myctophid
Birds:  Shearwaters, Albatross, Gulls

The Squid 
The squid come on little tentacled feet
Falling, splatting, rolling, and sliding out of its netted jail.
Free at last
To be weighed and measured
Sitting on a strong mantle in a flowing liquid of ebony and midnight.
Your silent escape goes unnoticed.

The Clouds 
The clouds slither on little squid tentacles
The midnight inky darkness envelopes the sky and warns us of foreboding
It sits looking over ships and sea lions
Its silent mantle quietly slides away.

(Inspired by Carl Sandberg’s “The Fog”)

The squid were examined, weighed, and the data entered into the data base.
The squid were examined, weighed, and the data entered into the data base.
A cusk eel
A cusk eel

Jennifer Fry, July 20, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 20, 2009

Chief scientist, Dezhang Chu, gets to know a hake while chief scientist, Lisa Bonacci looks on.
Chief scientist, Dezhang Chu, gets to know a hake while chief scientist, Lisa Bonacci looks on.

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Reading in the morning:
Wind speed: 40 knots
Wind direction: 000°from the north
Visibility: clear
Temperature: 11.6°C (dry bulb); 10.5°C (wet bulb)

Reading in the afternoon:
Wind speed: 20 knots
Wind direction: 358°from the north
Visibility: foggy
Temperature: 12.2°C (dry bulb); 11.8°C (wet bulb)

Science/Technology Log 

Collecting the hake’s stomach help scientists determine its diet.
Collecting the hake’s stomach help scientists determine its diet.

Fishing trawl #1. We conducted a successful fishing trawl.  Collection of hake totaled 3500 kg. (kilograms.)  Pictured are chief scientists Lisa Bonacci and Dezhang Chu getting to know the hake.  Fishing trawl #2: There was trouble with the sonar equipment so we were unable to conduct a successful fishing trawl.

Personal Log 

Today’s unsuccessful fishing trawl due to a malfunction reminds me that we often learn more from our mistakes that our successes. Scientists are constantly reviewing their scientific process to make sure they align with their hypothesis. After 3 days of gale force winds (34-40 knots) and big waves, today was a welcome change with 20 knot winds and calm seas in the afternoon.  I finally feel like I’ve my “sea legs” about me.

The hake stomach and a pair of otolith, ear bones will help determine what the hake is eating and how old the fish are.
The hake stomach and a pair of otolith, ear bones will help determine what the hake is eating and how old the fish are.

Animals Seen 
Fish:  Hake Myctophidae
Birds:  Fulmar, Albatross, Gulls, and Shearwater

Jennifer Fry, July 19, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 19, 2009

The XBT (Expendable Bathythermograph)
The XBT (Expendable Bathythermograph)

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 42 knots
Wind direction: 350°from the north
Visibility: clear
Temperature: 11.4°C (dry bulb); 10.4°C (wet bulb)

Science and Technology Log 

The seas are still very rough with 40 knot winds. No fishing trawls due to the high waves and heavy seas. However, despite the rough seas, we were able to conduct an XBT, which stands for Expendable Bathythermograph.  An XBT is a measuring apparatus consisting of a large lead weight connected to a very thin copper wire. The function of the XBT is to measure the temperature throughout the water column.  It is launched off the stern (back) of the ship. As it sinks to the sea floor, temperature data is transmitted to an onboard computer.

Biologist Chris Grandin prepares to launch an XBT
Biologist Chris Grandin prepares to launch an XBT

Personal Log 

The Miller Freeman is an NOAA research vessel.   Here’s a bit of information about the Miller Freeman…For more information go here. The Miller Freeman is a 215foot fisheries and oceanographic research vessel and is one of the largest research trawlers in the United States. Its primary mission is to provide a working platform for the study of the ocean’s living resources. The ship is named for Miller Freeman (1875-1955), a publisher who was actively involved in the international management of fish harvests. The ship was launched in 1967, but not fully rigged until 1975. The vessel was again re-rigged in 1982. Its home port is Seattle, Washington.  It is capable of operating in any waters of the world. The ship has 7 NOAA Corps officers, 27 crew members, and maximum of 11 scientists.

Following is a “tour” of the ship.  It has many nice amenities for extended life at sea.

The Laundry Room - Here’s where we do our laundry. The laundry room is located in the bow/front of the ship which bounces up and down a lot, so you can feel pretty sea sick if you’re up there too long.
The Laundry Room – Here’s where we do our laundry. The laundry room is located in the bow/front of the ship which bounces up and down a lot, so you can feel pretty sea sick at times.
The Kitchen - Our 3 amazing cooks, Bill, Larry, and Adam, work hard preparing 3 meals a day for over 30 people. They have quite a difficult and detailed job.
The Kitchen – Our 3 amazing cooks, Bill, Larry, and Adam, work hard preparing 3 meals a day for over 30 people. They have quite a difficult and detailed job.
The Galley - This is where we enjoy deliciously prepared meals.
The Galley – This is where we enjoy deliciously prepared meals.
The Library - Pictured here is the ship’s library where crew members can read and check e-mail.
The Library – Pictured here is the ship’s library where crew members can read and check e-mail.
The Lounge - Here’s the lounge where movies and video games can be watched.
The Lounge – Here’s the lounge where movies and video games can be watched.
The Gym - The gym is located on the lowest level of the ship.  This is where you can work off the great food that you’ve eaten.
The Gym – The gym is located on the lowest level of the ship. This is where you can work off the great food that you’ve eaten.

The Gift of Patience 
Wending our way through the North Pacific Ocean,
The massive waves crash against our hull with Herculean strength
As high as a one story building, their tops are dolloped with luscious whipped cream
They take their turn crashing against the ships sturdy hull, as gale force winds whip wildly past.
We play a waiting game. We practice the ancient art of patience.
When will we have hake, the silvery, slender fish that evades our sonar?

As the winds blow, cold sea spray stings my face.
I watch as the never ending line of waves wait their turn to hit the ship’s hull.
The waves wait patiently as do we.
The sea teaches us serenity.
We must not show greed or impatience.
The sea will provide.
One should lay empty and open waiting for the gifts from the sea.

~Inspired by Anne Morrow Lindberg’s Gifts from the Sea

NOAA Ship Miller Freeman
NOAA Ship Miller Freeman

Jennifer Fry, July 18, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 18, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 40 knots
Wind direction: 350°from the north
Visibility: foggy Temperature: 12.9°C (dry bulb); 12.0°C (wet bulb)
Wave height: 8-10 feet

Science and Technology Log 

Lisa Bonacci, chief scientist and Melanie Johnson, fishery biologist in the Freeman’s acoustics lab
Lisa Bonacci, chief scientist and Melanie Johnson, fishery biologist in the Freeman’s acoustics lab

Acoustics: Lisa Bonacci, chief scientist, and Melanie Johnson, fishery biologist, are in the acoustics lab onboard the Miller Freeman as it travels along a transect line. NOAA scientists can detect a variety of marine life under the sea. They use sonar—sound waves bouncing off an object—to detect the animals. There is an onboard sonar system that puts out four different frequencies of sound waves.  Each type of fish will give off a different signal depending on its size, shape, and anatomy.  The fish are then identified on the sonar computer readout.  The strength of the sonar signal will determine the number of hake and the way that they are swimming.  As soon as it appears on the sonar as if hake are present, Ms. Bonacci then calls the bridge to request that we trawl for fish.

This is the sonar readout as it’s seen on the computer screen.
This is the sonar readout as it’s seen on the computer screen.

Personal Log 

The boat was rocking in all directions with 40 knot winds and 8-10 foot waves. The fishing trawl brought up scores of fish including a lot of hake. The sonar signals worked really well to locate them. We dissected and measured many fish, but not before we sat in a giant vat of hake (see photo.)  It was a great learning day.

Animals Seen Today 
Hake,spiny dogfish, Humbolt squid, Myctophidae, and Birds.

Here we are in a giant vat of hake!
Here we are in a giant vat of hake!

Discovery from the Briny 
As the trawl net was raised from the depths
The sun broke through the clouds revealing a sparkling azure sky.
Scores of seagulls circled the stern
In the hopes of a bountiful offering
Tasty morsels from the deep
Soon to be thrown overboard.

American fishery biologist, Melanie Johnson, and Canadian fishery biologist, Chris Grandin, take biological samples.
American fishery biologist, Melanie Johnson, and Canadian fishery biologist, Chris Grandin, take biological samples.

Jennifer Fry, July 17, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 17, 2009

Hake are unloaded into holding containers, soon to be weighed and measured
Hake are unloaded into holding containers, soon to be weighed and measured

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 20 knots
Wind direction: 340°from the north- north west
Visibility: foggy
Temperature: 15.2°C (dry bulb); 13.0°C (wet bulb)

Science and Technology Log 

Each day I observe the NOAA scientists using the scientific process.  These are the same process skills we learn in the classroom. The scientists determine what they want to find out and state it in a question form. These are some of the questions/hypotheses that they are trying to answer.

  • What and where are the populations of hake?
  • In what environments do the hake best thrive?
  • When do they migrate?
  • What do they feed on?
  • What feeds on the hake?

Once the hake are observed on the sonar, the trawl net is dropped into the water.  The fish are hauled out onto the deck where they are emptied into huge holding bins.  Scientists want a good sampling of hake for the survey, not too much and not too little.  Getting a good sample is important to the scientists; both for their research and the environment.  The scientists don’t want to take too many hake each time they fish, doing this might diminish the hake population. 

Collecting Data: Observing – Using the senses to collect information.

Classifying – Sorting or ordering objects or ideas into groups or categories based on their properties.

Measuring – Determining dimensions (length/area), volume, mass/weight, or time of objects or events by using instruments that measure these properties.

Otoliths—fish ear bones—are extracted and placed in vials (test tubes) for later study.
Otoliths—fish ear bones—are extracted and placed in vials (test tubes) for later study.

The scientists then collect their data. Fish are separated by species or classified.  All hake collected are then weighed. A certain number of them are measured in length, and their sex is determined.  Scientists observe; dissect a group of hake, and collect the fish’s ear bones, called the otoliths, (2 white oval shapes pictured above). Otoliths are stored in small vials, which are like test tubes, for later study. The test tube has a serial number which is fed into a computer as well. Later, scientists will observe the otoliths under a microscope.  The otolith helps determine the age of the fish. When observed under a microscope, the otolith, or ear bone has rings similar to rings of a tree. The more rings, the older the fish.  The age of the fish or data is then recorded in a computer spreadsheet.

Communicating – Using pictorial, written, or oral language to describe an event, action, or object.

Making Models – Making a pictorial, written or physical representation to explain an idea, event, or object.

Recording Data Writing down the results of an observation of an object or event using pictures, words, or numbers.

As data is collected, it is recorded into a computer database, then scientists create tables and graphs from information in this database.

Inferring  – Making statements about an observation that provide a reasonable explanation.

Predicting – Guessing what the outcome of an event will be based on observations and, usually, prior knowledge of similar events.

Interpreting Data – Creating or using tables, graphs, or diagrams to organize and explain information.

The otoliths look like small oval “winglike” structures.
The otoliths look like small oval “winglike” structures.

Once all the data is in the computer, scientists can analyze or figure out the answers to these questions.

  • What and where are the populations of hake?
  • In what environments do the hake best thrive?
  • When do they migrate?
  • What do they feed on?
  • What feeds on the hake?

Scientists use the data to infer or make a statement about the data that gives a reasonable explanation.  Scientists also make predictions by guessing what the outcome might be based on the data/observations.

Marine Mammal Watch – NOAA Fisheries instructs the scientists to conduct a “marine mammal watch” prior to a fishing trawl. This is to protect the marine mammals, such as dolphins, whales, sea lions, and seals.  When the nets go into the ocean, the curious sea lions want to see what’s going on and play around the nets.  This can prove dangerous for the animals because if they get tangled in the net, they cannot come up for air, and being mammals, they need air.  As it happened, a half a dozen sea lions were spotted around our trawl net. To protect the inquisitive animals we found another spot in which to put our net.

California sea lion
California sea lion

Personal Log 

Everyone aboard the Miller Freeman is a team.  It’s an amazing working environment.  The ship runs like a well oiled machine.  The crew is always so helpful and are dedicated to their work.  The scientists are incredibly dedicated to their specific field and are committed to helping the world and the ocean’s biome. Everyone is so patient with all my questions.  I am so grateful and honored to be part of this hake survey which is so scientifically important in determining the health of our ocean.

Animals Seen Today 
California sea lions
Hake Myctophidae: lantern fish

Jennifer Fry, July 16, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 16, 2009

Here is Dr. Chu using a sonar readout to determine where the hake are located.
Here is Dr. Chu using a sonar readout to determine where the hake are located.

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind speed: 20 knots
Wind direction: 358°from the north
Visibility: foggy
Temperature: 15.2°C (dry bulb); 13.4°C (wet bulb)

Science and Technology Log 

We conducted several sea trawls for hake and other various fish species.   First, the scientists conduct an acoustic survey using 4 different frequencies. Then the nets are lowered and drug at depth. The fun begins when we don our rubber overalls, gloves, and galoshes and count, identify and, weigh the fish. The most numerous fish in the trawls were myctophids (see photo), bioluminescent fish with some species having 2 headlights in front of their eyes to help attract prey.

Here we are sorting the catch.
Here we are sorting the catch.

HAB/ Harmful Algal Blooms Test:  Throughout the day we took HAB samples, “harmful algae blooms”, which measures the toxins, domoic acid, and chlorophyll levels in the water (which correspond to the amount of plankton present). The HAB sample entails collecting sea water and putting it through a filtering process. Julia Clemons, a NOAA Oceanographer, and I conducted the HAB survey (pictured below).  Fifty milliliters of sea water is measured into a graduated cylinder then filtered.

This is a type of fish called a myctophid. They are bioluminescent.
This is a type of fish called a myctophid. They are bioluminescent.

Sea water is collected at specific times during each transect or line of study.  The sea water goes through a filtering process testing domoic acid and chlorophyll levels.  These results will be evaluated later in the lab. One thing that strikes me is the importance of careful and accurate measurement in the lab setting. The harmful algal bloom samples are conducted 5-6 times daily and accuracy is essential for precise and definitive results.  Later scientists will review and evaluate the data that was collected in the field.  It is very important that the scientists use the same measurements and tools so that each experiment is done the same way. Making accurate data collection makes for accurate scientific results.

Animals Seen Today 
Numerous albatross circling the stern of the ship, Viper fish, Octopi (approx. 6 inches in length), Squid (approx. 3 inches in length), and Myctophidae (see photo).

Zooplankton
Zooplankton
Here I am observing Julia as she filters a HAB sample.
Here I am observing Julia as she filters a HAB sample.

Jennifer Fry, July 15, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 15, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Wind Speed: 19 kts.
Wind direction: 355° north
Temperature: 15.4°C (dry bulb); 13.2°C (wet bulb)

Science and Technology Log 

This picture shows the Miller Freeman in Alaskan waters.  On our cruise, it’s working off the coast of California.
This picture shows the Miller Freeman in Alaskan waters. On our cruise, it’s working off the coast of California.

Our cruise was delayed for a day due to poor weather conditions and heavy seas. We began with a meeting of the scientific team which consists of 8 members all with their specific scientific knowledge and expertise. We will be conducting several types of oceanographic sampling during our cruise:  2-3 hake tows per day, weather permitting, an open net tow where fish are viewed through a camera, XBTs: Expendable Bathythermograph, HABS: Harmful Algal Bloom Sampling, and CTD: Conductivity, Temperature, and Density. The ship conducted Man Overboard and Fire drills.

The research vessel Miller Freeman set sail from Eureka, California on Wednesday, July 15th at approximately 12:30. Each person aboard is assigned a specific job and place to report on the Miller Freeman during such an event. Our assignments are posted on our stateroom door. During a Fire/Emergency Drill the signal is a 10 second blast of the general alarm and/or ship’s whistle. I am to report or muster to the Chemical Lab.

In the event of an Abandon Ship Drill, I am assigned to life raft #2 and muster on the O-1 deck, port (left) side. The Abandon Ship signal is more than 6 short blasts followed by one long blast of the general alarm and/or ship’s whistle. If a Man Overboard Drill is called, we will hear 3 prolonged blasts of the general alarm and/or ship’s whistle.  The muster station is the Chemical Lab. If we personally see a person go overboard the ship there are three things to do immediately: Throw a life ring overboard, call the bridge, and keep your eyes on the person. 

These things all need to be done as simultaneously as possible to assure the safety and recovery of the person who is in the sea. It is important to conduct these emergency drills so that everyone is ready and prepared in the case of an emergency event.

Personal Log 

I am sharing a stateroom with Julia Clemons, an oceanographer on board the Miller Freeman. She works for NOAA Fisheries in Newport, Oregon.  Her educational background includes a Bachelors’ degree in Oceanography and a masters’ degree in Geology. The scientists and crew on board are so professional and willing to teach and tell about their job.  They are an amazing group of people.

New Term/Phrase/Word 
Domoic acid

Questions of the Day? 
What does a hake look like in person?

Animals Seen Today 
5 Egrets
1 great blue heron
Numerous gulls

Jennifer Fry, July 14, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman (tracker)
July 14 – 29, 2009 

Mission: 2009 United States/Canada Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey
Geographical area of cruise: North Pacific Ocean from Monterey, CA to British Columbia, CA.
Date: July 14, 2009

NOAA Ship Miller Freeman
NOAA Ship Miller Freeman

Weather Data from the Bridge 
No data (In port)

 Science Log 

After arriving at the Eureka airport I found my way to the Miller Freeman thanks to many friendly Eurekan locals. What a lovely town with many interesting sights including the dock area, downtown with its renewed turn of the century architecture.   Upon arriving at the Miller Freeman I was greeted by Ensign Heather Moe who graciously gave me a tour of the ship.

There were four decks or levels to the ship which include:

  • Flying Bridge Deck: observations take place as well as storage
  • Bridge Deck: Navigation can take place from the bridge or the trawl house.  The trawl house faces toward the stern of the ship and is used to control the ship during “fishing.”
  • Boat Deck: Officers’ & Chief Scientist’s staterooms.  A stateroom is where you would sleep on a boat or ship. Your bed is called a “rack.”  Most staterooms on the Miller Freeman have bunk beds. The boat deck is where the small launches/rescue boats are stored.
  • There is: a FRB, Fast Rescue Boat, and a small launch.
  • Quarterdeck/ Main Deck:  Ship’s store, survey officers’ staterooms and the back deck, used for fishing. *The term quarterdeck was originally, in the early 17th century, used for a smaller deck, covering about a quarter of the vessel. It is usually reserved for officers, guests, passengers. It is also an entry point for personnel. Lower/ Galley Deck: Crew’s and scientists’ staterooms, library, two lounges, galley, where everyone eats their meals.
  • Hold: Gym for exercising and engineer’s storage area.

Question of the Day 
Where did the word quarterdeck* originate? (see answer above)

Animals Seen Today
Egrets Blue Heron Gulls