Jacquelyn Hams: 7 November 2011

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jackie Hams
Aboard R/V Roger Revelle
November 6 — December 10, 2011

Mission: Project DYNAMO
Geographical area of cruise: Leg 3, Eastern Indian Ocean
Date: November 7, 2011

Weather Data from the R/V Revelle Meteorological Stations

Time: 1100
Course on Ground
Wind Direction:   195.50
Wind Speed (m/s):   2.1
Air Temperature (C):  27.6
Relative Humidity:   81.7%
Dew Point: (C):   24.4
Precipitation (mm):   6.0

PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) (microeinsteins): 517.4
Long Wave Radiation (w/m2): 405.3
Short Wave Radiation (w/m2): 60.5                                                                            

Surface Water Temperature (C): 28.7
Sound Velocity:  1540.6
Salinity (ppm): 32.45
Fluorometer (micrograms/l): 65.2
Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l): 3.6

Wave Data from WAMOS Xband radar

Wave Height (m) 1.6
Wave Period (s): 18.4
Wavelength (m):  312
Wave Direction:   2650

Science and Technology Log

Background

Leg 3 of the Project DYNAMO research cruise began, on November 6, 2011 from Phuket, Thailand at approximately 1430. The DYNAMO Leg 3 research cruise consists of seven scientific groups conducting experiments in the following areas:

  • Surface Fluxes
  • Atmospheric Soundings
  • Aerosols
  • NOAA High Resolution Doppler LIDAR
  • TOGA Radar
  • Ocean Optics
  • Ocean Mixing

My primary role on this cruise is to work with the Ocean Mixing group led by Dr. Jim Moum from Oregon State University. The Ocean Mixing Group is responsible for sonar measurements of ocean current profiles, high frequency measurement of acoustic backscatter, turbulence/CTD profiling instruments and near surface CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) measurements. I will be working with other scientific groups as needed and have organized my Teacher at Sea blog to report on daily activities by science group.

Sampling Activities

We have been cruising for a couple of days to the sampling station in the eastern Indian Ocean and are still within the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Thailand, India, and other countries.  Here is an interesting fact that I learned about the EEZ – it not only applies to resources, but also applies to data collection.  What this means to the R/V Revelle, is that the scientists cannot collect data until the ship clears the 200 nautical mile EEZ for the counties.  After clearing the EEZ, the science groups can begin data collection.

Atmospheric Soundings

Data collection began on the ship on November 8 and one of the first groups I observed was the Atmospheric Soundings group.  This group is responsible for launching radiosondes using helium balloons (weather balloons).  A radiosonde is an instrument that contains sensors to measure temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed, and wind direction. Although the balloons can hold up to 200 cubic feet of helium, on this cruise, each balloon is filled with 30-35 cubic feet of helium.   As the radiosonde ascends, it transmits data to the ship for up to 1 ½ hours before the weather balloon bursts and falls into the ocean.  The weather balloons have been reaching an average altitude of 16 km before bursting. Approximately 260 weather balloons will be launched during Leg 3 of the cruise.

The Radiosonde

Watch the video clip below to watch the deployment of a weather balloon.


Computer screen shot of radiosonde data. Temperature is red, relative humidity in blue, wind speed is in green and wind direction is purple.

Ocean Mixing

The Ocean Mixing group began the deployment of XBTs (Expendable bathythermographs) on November 10, 2011. XBTs are torpedo shaped instruments which are lowered through the ocean to obtain temperature data. The XBT is attached to a handheld instrument for launching by a copper wire. Electronic readings are sent to the ship as the XBT descends in the ocean. When the XBT reaches 1,000 meters, the copper line is broken and the XBT is released and falls to the bottom on the ocean.

 

First step in getting the XBT ready.

Here I am getting ready to launch the XBT.

Launching the XBT

Computer screen shot of thermocline (change in temperature with depth) obtained from XBT instrument. The green shaded curve displays the historical record for comparison.

 

Personal Log

I arrived in Phuket, Thailand on November 3, 2011 after a 19-hour plane ride.  After dinner and a good night’s sleep, I went to the ship to get acquainted with my new home for the next 6 weeks.  Select the link below for a tour of the R/V Revelle.

http://shipsked.ucsd.edu/ships/roger_revelle/.

Aboard the R/V Revelle in Phuket, Thailand

The Revelle sailed from Phuket on November 6.  As the ship sailed to station, I captured the beauty of the Indian Ocean.

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A beautiful day on the Indian Ocean.

Christine Hedge, August 19, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Christine Hedge
Onboard USCGC Healy
August 7 – September 16, 2009 

Mission: U.S.-Canada 2009 Arctic Seafloor Continental Shelf Survey
Location: Chukchi Sea, north of the arctic circle
Date: August 19, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge   

Brittle star

Brittle star

LAT: 810 23’N
LONG: 1560 31’W
Air Temp: 28.27 0F

Science and Technology Log 

My fellow teacher at sea, Jon Pazol, and I wonder, “What kind of brittle star is this?”  We think it is a Gorgonocephalus cf arcticus.

My fellow teacher at sea, Jon Pazol, and I wonder, “What kind of brittle star is this?” We think it is a Gorgonocephalus cf arcticus.

There isn’t much biology to be done on this cruise.  Our mapping mission is the main focus.  But, living things find a way of working their way into the picture.  We have a marine mammal and a community observer on board looking for whales, seals, polar bears, sea birds and other Arctic animals. Yesterday, a small Arctic Cod found its way into the seawater pipe in the science lab. And a few days ago, when the HARP instrument was pulled up, there was a brittle star attached to it. Jon Pazol (the ARMADA Teacher at Sea) and I are both biology types and we got excited about the opportunity to identify this creature from the Arctic Ocean.

Personal log 

Yoann, a student from France, enjoys his first corndog

Yoann, a student from France, enjoys his first corndog

I did not grow up in Indiana and have avoided eating a corndog until now.  Yoann Ladroit (from France) and I (from Connecticut) had our very first corndogs for lunch yesterday. We have enjoyed many different types of food on the Healy. Imagine stocking a ship with enough food for 120-130 people for months in the Arctic. When the Healy left Seattle they had a food inventory valued at $300,000. Ideally, this ship leaves port with enough food for a year. This is more than most Coast Guard cutters carry – but the Arctic is a unique place.  In other oceans, cutters can pull in to port and purchase fresh supplies. In the Arctic there are few ports and where there are ports – the food is VERY expensive. The Healy needs to be prepared to feed the crew, just in case they get beset (stuck in ice). So, they have staple foods ready for an emergency situation.

A forklift carries food supplies to the Healy

A forklift carries food supplies to the Healy

In Barrow, the Healy picked up many forklifts full of fresh produce and eggs. This will be the last fresh produce we get until September 16th when we return to shore. The Healy is one of the newest ships in the Coast Guard and has spacious facilities in the galley (kitchen) and the mess decks (dining room).  There are huge refrigerators, storage rooms and freezers for food. The gleaming stainless steel galley has computerized ovens with probes that sense when the food has reached the correct temperature and a huge and speedy dishwasher. As a newcomer to the ship we were warned about the powerful microwave oven, which heats anything in 10 seconds and garbage disposal (affectionately called the Red Goat) which grinds up all food waste instantly.

This area, called the mess, is where we eat our meals.

This area, called the mess, is where we eat our meals.

We eat in the mess decks.  Our mess decks are twice the size of those on other Coast Guard cutters.  Meals are served 4 times each day. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner are served at the regular times.  Since people work 24/7, a fourth meal called Mid-rats (midnight rations) is served each night at 11pm.   One of the interesting features in the mess decks is the operating room set up over one of the tables. Although the Healy has a state of the art sick bay, what if the sick bay was unusable because of a fire or some other crisis? It seems that in a mass casualty situation, the mess decks doubles as a medical space, which would be used to tend to wounded personnel.

Christine Hedge, August 18, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Christine Hedge
Onboard USCGC Healy
August 7 – September 16, 2009 

Mission: U.S.-Canada 2009 Arctic Seafloor Continental Shelf Survey
Location: Chukchi Sea, north of the arctic circle
Date: August 18, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge   
Lat: 800 32’N
Long: 1540 04’ W
Temp:  28.720 F

Science and Technology Log 

Mrs. Hedge fills the weather balloon

Mrs. Hedge fills the weather balloon

Twice each day, AG1 (Aerographers mate 1st class) Richard Lemkuhl launches a weather balloon. Today, at 6 AM I assisted with the launch. The balloon is filled with helium and attached to a device powered by a 9-volt battery. The weather balloon sends back temperature, pressure, and humidity data along with GPS derived winds to a radio receiver on the bridge of the Healy. This profile of the atmospheric conditions can be injected into global weather models to help predict the weather. On the Healy we use this information for flight operations (the helicopter). Helicopters, ships, and planes all need current weather conditions to navigate safely.  Data from weather balloons can help determine if there might be icing, turbulence, wind driven ice or the possibility of thunderstorms.

FOR MY STUDENTS: All kinds of scientists use models to help explain, predict, and understand the world around them. Can you think of a model you have used in science? 

Radio Receiver on the bridge of the Healy

Radio Receiver on the bridge of the Healy

AG1 Lemkuhl works for the Naval Maritime Forecast Center in Norfolk, Virginia. He is part of a group of U. S. Navy personnel on board the Healy to better understand how to operate Navy vessels in the Arctic. The dynamic weather patterns he experienced as a child in Oklahoma sparked his interest in meteorology.  His very first weather balloon was launched in 8th grade under the watchful eyes of Mrs. Stevens, his science teacher in Clarksville, Tennessee. AG1 enjoyed learning about Earth Science as a middle school student, which lead to studying geography and climatology in college.  The Navy has added to his education and after a year of school he is currently an Assistant Operational Meteorologist.

FOR MY STUDENTS:  What have you studied in school that has sparked your interest? 

Personal Log 

AG1 Lemkuhl holding the weather balloon instrument

AG1 Lemkuhl holding the weather balloon instrument

Yesterday the sun came out and the sky was blue.  What a difference that blue sky made!  There isn’t much color in the Arctic – especially when it is foggy.  The inside of the ship is tan. The ice and sky are white. Blue sky brought more people out on deck just to enjoy the color change.  We also saw more seals out on the ice. Could it be that they like to bask in the sun as well?

Today, as we backed and rammed through 2.5 meters of ice, I saw my first fish!  They were small, about the size of my palm.  Could these be the Arctic Cod I have read about??

FOR MY STUDENTS: Look at my current latitude.  What day will the sun finally set at this latitude???

AG1 Lemkuhl shows Mrs. Hedge how to launch a weather balloon.

AG1 Lemkuhl shows Mrs. Hedge how to launch a weather balloon.

Blue Sky in the Arctic! This is the CCGS Louis S. St. Laurent. The Healy is breaking ice for her.

Blue Sky in the Arctic! This is the CCGS Louis S. St. Laurent. The Healy is breaking ice for her.

Scott Sperber, July 11-12, 2009

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Scott Sperber
Onboard Research Vessel Kilo Moana
July 9-17, 2009 

Mission:Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Hawaii Ocean Time series Station; Albert J. Plueddemann, Chief Scientist
Geographical area of cruise: Central Pacific, north of O’ahu
Date: July 11-12, 2009

Weather Data from the Bridge 
Temperature: 24.2 C

Bringing in the SEABIRD CTD

Bringing in the SEABIRD CTD

Science and Technology Log 

Compared to yesterday today is a very slow scientific day.  After releasing the WHOTS buoy, things really calmed down.  Let me take this opportunity to tell you a bit about some of the instrumentation on the buoy itself.  The overall goal of the project is to collect data about the ocean and atmosphere over a long period of time.  These data will serve to help answer questions about such things as global warming and its impact in the tropics. On the buoy itself, pictured in a previous log, there are instruments that measure temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind direction and speed. A GPS unit keeps track of the buoy’s location at all times. On the buoy there is also an antenna which transmits data to satellites. Each of the two buoys [explain why there are two in the ocean for this 4-day comparison period] in the water has enough slack in the lines to allow for an approximate 2-mile radius circle.

Profile of CTD on shallow casts

Profile of CTD on shallow casts

The weather balloon launching continues every four hours with teams of two or three taking each launch in shifts. Some CTD casts have been done with the small package SEABIRD CTD.  This is set over the side, lowered down by crane and yo-yoed up and down for about four hours.  During this time, data are sent directly to an onboard computer and collected by the scientists. These data include temperature and salinity. This is important information to assess changes going on in the crucial air/sea interface.

These particular locations, ones where temperature and salinity difference vary worldwide, the thermocline and halocline are dependent on variables such a currents and air temperature.  On the final assent collection bottles are closed to collect water samples for further analysis. With all of this sophisticated instrumentation onboard surface water temperature samples are still taken with the old fashioned method of lowering thermometers into the water several times to take an average reading. Some things never change. The information collected by both the oceanographic crew as well as the meteorological crew aboard is truly showing the links, the association between the interaction of the air and sky, in the crucial air/sea interface.

I found out today that the temperatures on the two thermometers on the WHOTS-6 buoy are not matching. They are off by about 0.4 degrees C; that is the level of precision necessary for this research.  The scientists are looking into which one is closest to the temperatures read on the ship before we move off to the old buoy’s location tomorrow. Apparently, this is not something that can be reconfigured so the scientists need to know which thermometer they can rely on for information. There are two of just about every instrument on the WHOTS buoys. This serves as a backup and a comparison for the same location and enables the greatest accuracy in the data.

Profile of weather balloon sonde

Profile of weather balloon sonde

Personal Log 

I’d like to share a bit more about my onboard life. I have gotten acclimated finding my way around the ship (sort of). Well, at least I don’t get lost going to the mess hall anymore.  I am in a berth on an upper bunk with Jeffrey Snyder, one of the primary researchers from the University of Hawaii. The berth is quite comfortable as berths can go since it has been years since I was in a bunk bed. Various alarm clocks go off at anytime at night so the crew can go on their watch.  There is even a ghost alarm that goes off at 01:15 that Jeff and I cannot locate.  Food is not at a shortage. It seems that every time you turn around it is time to eat, and what great food it is too.  There is fresh salad lunch and dinner, fresh fruit, at least 3 entries to choose from each mea and desserts. LA Fitness here I come. I received what I consider a gift today from Fernando Santiago, one of the principle scientists, a DVD of the procedures that are used on the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Project.

July 12, 2009 

Had some down time today after setting off another weather balloon and a great fruit and yogurt breakfast. Took a 7 mile bike ride. You may ask where in the middle of the ocean you can take a 7 mile bike ride.  They have a nice little fitness room on board.

Words of the day: Mahimahi, calibration, dissolved oxygen, interface, thermocline, conductivity, temperature, depth.