Wesley Struble, 14 July, 2010

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Wes Struble
Onboard NOAA Ship Ka’imimoana
July 8 – August 10, 2010

Mission: Tropical Ocean Atmosphere (TOA) cruise
Geographical area of cruise: Equatorial Pacific from 120ΕLongitude to 95Ε Longitude
Date: 14 July 2010

Weather Data from the Bridge

Cloud cover: 6/8 (75%) with stratocumulus clouds
Visibility: 10 nm (nautical miles)
Wind: bearing 330Ε at 14 knots
Atmospheric Pressure: 1012.0 millibars
Temperature: 24.6ΕC (76.3ΕF)
Wave height: 1 – 2 feet

Science and Technology Log
The last few days I have spent some time up on the bridge of the Ka’imimoana. Ensign Linh Nguyen, one of the NOAA Corps officers, showed me around and explained some of the equipment. They have three general types of equipment available on the bridge which I will categorize as: communication, propulsion, and navigation.

The bridge of the KA

The communications system first includes intra-ship lines. These are mostly carried out by an intercom type system. Each major area of the ship (including each stateroom) is connected to this intercom system by a phone that permits communication with any other part of the ship. The ship also has numerous hand-held radios available for use when one is not near a phone. In addition, the bridge has both inter-ship and ship-land communication capabilities. The KA (short for Ka’imimoana – Hawaiian for Ocean Seeker) also has access to the Iridium satellite platform for communication with land in addition to access to a satellite internet and internet VOIP system.

Autopilot and propulsion controls

There are two types of propulsion on the ship. First, there are four large diesel engines that power a generator. This generator produces the electrical power that runs each of the two electric motors that drives the screws (propellers) located at the stern (rear) of the vessel. While moving through the harbor all four diesel engines are running sending power to the generators. When the ship is out at sea only three of the diesel engines are used. The ship can operate with only two engines in service for power generation but under this configuration the ship will cruise at slower speeds. The KA has two screws: port (the left side of the ship if one is facing the bow or front of the ship) and starboard (the right side of the ship if one facing the bow). Each screw runs independent from the other with separate controls on the bridge. The conning officer (the officer who is in charge of the bridge at any given time) can change course by turning the rudder (the most common way) or by altering the speed (rpm) of one of the screws (without using the rudder). The KA also has a bow thruster (also powered by an electric motor) that is mounted in a tunnel through the forward part of the hull. This thruster permits the conning officer to move the forward part of the ship port or starboard without the main screws driving the ship forward. The bow thruster allows more subtle and precise motion that could be used for docking or perhaps helping keep the ship over a precise location while collecting data at those particular coordinates.

The bow thruster control
AIS screen
The fathometer

The captain of the KA, LCDR (Lieutenant Commander) Matthew Wingate, described the navigation system of the KA as modern but not state-of-the-art. The ship has many redundancies built into its guidance system. Two radar consoles, three compasses (two digital/electronic and one analog), an AIS (Automatic Identification System), paper charts, a fathometer (sonar) and of course, binoculars and the naked eyes of those on constant watch. The radar system is quite fascinating. It has an adjustable range with the ability to scan out to almost 100 nautical miles. The system plots the projected course of the ship and the predicted course of other ships within its range using vector analysis. This information is necessary to be able to prevent (well ahead of time) any possible collisions that might take place if the ships hold to their current courses. In addition, it is possible to set a radar alarm range of a particular radius around the ship. If any object comes within that range an alarm sounds to alert the pilot of the danger.

Radar screen
Radar tower

While I was on the bridge there were three other ships registering on the radar monitor each traveling in different directions. The two digital compasses are mounted side-by-side and their readings (and the difference between the readings) are projected at the navigation console. Above one’s head and not far from the digital compass readout is also a standard magnetic compass. The AIS (Automatic Identification System) is probably the most fascinating device I have seen on this ship. It is similar to radar readouts but provides much more information. First, one needs to understand that when ships are at sea they continuously send out a signal that provides identification information. The AIS receives this information and plots the locations and courses for these ships in addition to the location and course of the KA. All of this information is superimposed on a digital nautical chart that shows islands, shoals, exposed rocks, depth contours, and continental shorelines that can be adjusted for different scales. At the right margin of the AIS screen is listed navigation information such as the latitude and longitude of the ship, course bearing, ship speed in knots, and other pertinent data. Besides the course plotted on the AIS the conning officer also plots out the ship’s course on a paper chart and cross-checks it with the AIS. The fathometer shows the depth of the water under the ship and therefore the contours of the ocean bottom. This information can also be cross-checked with the charts and the AIS to make sure that they all agree. Last of all there is always someone on the bridge keeping watch on the instruments and the horizon verifying what is on the charts and monitors with what they see with their eyes through the binoculars.

Digital compasses

Personal Log

I have enjoyed walking about the ship during the day taking pictures and looking at the various types of equipment on the decks. I hope to describe these in later logs. I was on one of the lower weather decks this morning simply taking in the views of endless water in all directions. When the sun is out the water has a deep blue color with a very slight greenish tint. As the bow cuts through the water, waves and foam are pushed out creating a variety of tints of blues, greens, and white. It is beautiful indeed.
While I was watching, out popped a flying fish! It jumped out near the bow wave and glided about a foot off of the water for about 50 yards or more. When it would hit a wave crest it would boost itself with its tail and go a little farther. I stayed at that location for another half hour and watched many others, some small groups, and several large schools of 50 or more “fly” at one time. The longest “flight” was about 100 yards with the fish in the air maybe 5– 10 seconds. I would not have even thought to look for one of these fish. Like most children I had read about them and seen pictures of them when I was younger but never really thought that I would ever see one. What a great surprise.

Pacific Ocean and clouds
Pacific Ocean and clouds

Being from Idaho’s northern latitudes, the sun only gets approximately 67Ε above the horizon on the Vernal equinox. It has been interesting to have the sun literally directly overhead during a portion of the day. This, of course, produces few areas of shadow to get out of the sun’s harsh equatorial rays. When we left San Diego it was in the mid to lower 60’s but as we have worked or way south (about 200-250 miles per day) the temperature has been slowly rising. I am told that it will soon be very hot and humid so I should enjoy this mild weather while I can.

New Terms

I have learned a few new terms for parts of the ship that might be helpful for future logs. Deck – refers to any floor on the ship. I would refer to the floor of my stateroom as the deck. Bulkhead – this refers to any walls on the ship. I am required to keep the deck and bulkheads of my stateroom clean. Head – this refers to a bathroom on the ship. I have a head that I share with a crew member in the stateroom next to me and there is also a “public” head available on this same level. Aft – can mean in back of, behind, or toward the stern of the ship. Forward (sometimes simply fore) – can mean in front of, in front, or toward the bow of the ship.

Wesley Struble, 11 July, 2010

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Wes Struble
Onboard NOAA Ship Ka’imimoana
July 8 – August 10, 2010

Mission: TOA (Tropical Ocean Atmosphere) Cruise
Geographical area of cruise: Equatorial Pacific (120Ε W Long – 95Ε W Long)
Date: Sunday, 11 July 2010

Weather Data from the Bridge

Cloud cover: 6/8 (75%)
Visibility: 10 nautical miles
Wind speed: 12 knots at 320Ε
Barometric pressure: 1015.2 mb
Air temperature: 18.6ΕC (65.5ΕF) Ocean is relatively calm with 2 – 4 foot seas

Science and Technology Log

Me in front of NOAA Ship Ka’imimoana
Me in front of NOAA Ship Ka’imimoana

We left the San Diego Naval Base at approximately (0830 hours) 8:30 am Friday morning (9 July) under a gray and overcast sky with the temperature in the low 60’s. Our original departure date was delayed one day to repair one of the ship’s cranes that had some mechanical problems (specifically it was a problem with the anti-two-block, a device that prevents the crane operator from hoisting too much of the cable up and jamming the cable into the boom arm).

View of the fantail and buoy deck of the Ka’imimoana. Notice the large buoy floats stored on the deck and the three cranes used to move equipment around.

After the problem was resolved to the captain’s satisfaction we pulled away from the pier and headed for the fueling station that is near the entrance to San Diego harbor. Fueling took several hours. First the ship slowly approached the fueling pier and maneuvered in close enough for heaving lines to be tossed from the deck to the fueling team. Large mooring lines were then pulled over and the ship was secured to the pier. At this point one of the ship’s cranes raised a gangway off the deck and lowered it into place between the ship and the pier where it was secured with flexible mounts to allow the ship to rise and fall while fueling took place.

View of gangway
View of gangway

With fueling complete we left the harbor and headed out to sea at about 1730 hours (5:30 pm) toward our first target buoy located at approximately 33.5ΕNorth latitude and 120ΕWest longitude. This buoy is near South Santa Rosa Island, California and is in water with a depth of approximately 1021 meters (3350 feet) and took us the better part of the night and half the following morning to reach. The buoy measures general weather and sea conditions: Air & Sea temperatures, wave height, wind direction and speed (both average and maximum gusts), and atmospheric pressure. The buoy is also fitted with a GPS unit. All of the sensors transmit to a satellite every hour and the data is uploaded to an internet site where there is public access at the NDBC (National Data Buoy Center). The purpose of our visit to the buoy was to replace the payload. The payload is an electronic circuit box about the size of a breadbox. It contains the hardware and software that controls the buoy’s sensors. After the payload was replaced the system was checked by verifying the output three times. After completed we began our long cruise (7 days) to the 110ΕW longitude line. We will begin working on the TOA buoys at 8Ε north of the equator and work our way to the 8Ε south buoy. This will involve repairing some buoys that have been damaged and completely replacing others that have been lost.

Approaching the fueling pier

Personal Log

As I mentioned earlier the ship’s departure was delayed one day. I therefore, rented a room in a hotel for one night in downtown San Diego. As I was checking into the hotel at the main desk the building began to quietly rumble, the counter shook, the floor moved, and the lights above us began to sway somewhat. Those of us who were standing at the counter looked at each other with wide eyes when we realized we were in the middle of an earthquake! Fortunately the quake only lasted for a few seconds and little if any damage was done. Later that night I was watching the news in my room and the reports stated that the earthquake had a magnitude of 5.4 and more than likely took place along the San Jacinta fault – a fault that runs approximately parallel to but east of the famous San Andreas Fault. The next day (Friday) we boarded the ship in the late morning and I helped here and there with loading the last minute supplies (especially numerous cases of ice cream!) My state room is small but comfortable. I have a head (bathroom) that I share with the state room next to me. That room is occupied by the assistant steward, Mike.


Animals Seen Today

Earlier in the day I was feeling somewhat seasick so I went up on deck to get some fresh air. While there I noticed a dolphin swimming about 200 yards from the ship parallel to us. I kept him in sight for several minutes until he final faded from view. In addition, as we were all in the mess having dinner, one of the crew announced from the bridge that whales were spotted off the port side of the ship. I went up to take a look a bit later and could see them spouting – although they were too far to identify the species.