Linda Kurtz: Bathymetry – Who Knew? August 20, 2019

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Linda Kurtz

Aboard NOAA Ship Fairweather

August 12-23, 2019


Mission: Cascadia Mapping Project

Geographic Area of Cruise: Pacific Northwest (Off the coast of California)

Date: 8/20/2019

Weather Data from the Bridge:

Latitude: 41°04 N
Longitude:  124° 37 W
Sky Conditions:  Scattered Clouds
Present Weather:  Foggy
Visibility: 3 Nautical Miles
Windspeed: 2 knots
Sea Wave Height:  0
Swell Height: 2 feet
Temperature:  60° Fahrenheit


Bathymetry

What is Bathymetry and why is it important?  Bathymetry is the foundation of the science of hydrography, which measures the physical features of a water body. 

We covered Hydrography in the last blog post so we know it includes not only bathymetry, but also the shape and features of the shoreline and more.

Bathymetry is defined as “the study of the “beds” or “floors” of water bodies, including the ocean, rivers, streams, and lakes.” 

The term “bathymetry” originally referred to the ocean’s depth relative to sea level, although it has come to mean “submarine topography,” or the depths and shapes of underwater terrain.  In the same way that topographic maps represent the three-dimensional features of land, bathymetric maps illustrate the land that lies underwater.  Variations in sea-floor relief may be depicted by color and contour lines called depth contours or isobaths.  (Click here for source credit and more information from NOAA)

A bathymetric map looks like this (thanks Sam!):

bathymetric map
Latest bathymetric maps! Can you see the newly discovered undersea canyon?
(Southern coverage)
bathymetric map - north
Latest bathymetric maps! Can you see the newly discovered mud volcano?
(Northern Coverage)

Above are the first views of this part of the seafloor with a bathymetric map!  (Color coded for depth – see the chart on the left)


Science and Technology Log:

Among the NOAA officers Navigating the ship, Hydrographic Technicians, and wage mariners aboard Fairweather, and the Teacher at Sea, there are also two guest USGS scientists:  James Conrad, a research Geologist and Perter Dartnell, a physical scientist.  USGS stands for United States Geographical Survey.  The USGS was created by an act of Congress in 1879 and is the sole science agency for the Department of the Interior. 

As a Teacher at Sea, I had time to talk with these USGS scientists and learn more about Bathymetry and why it is important not only to scientists, but also how this information can be used to keep us safe. 

Discussion with James Conrad research Geologist who is utilizing the science of Bathymetry among others to map the Cascadia Region of the Pacific seafloor. The USGS scientists’ focus is mapping the Cascadia Subduction Zone where the Juan de Fuca tectonic plate is “diving” below the North American tectonic plate. Areas of particular interest to these scientists are finding new faults, faults that are known but we have little information about, mud volcanoes and subsequent “seeps,” and the overall goal is to understand the behavior of the mega thrusts in the Cascadia Region. 

map of tectonic plates
Image Credit: USGS scientists Peter Dartnell and James Conrad

About the visiting scientists:

James Conrad has a bachelor’s degree from U.C. Berkley and a master’s degree from San Jose State and has been at the USGS for 38 years.

A conversation with Research Geologist James Conrad:

What do you want students to know about Geology?

Geology is a field where there is still so much to discover, especially if you are doing hazards research work-like earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, coastal change, and climate change issues

Were you always interested in geology?

Not as a child, but I became a geology major because I had taken an introductory course – and was guided to geology by the university.

I met you on a ship-where do most of your work?

Office is in Santa Cruz, but we go out in the field 1-4 times a year for a week up to 3 weeks. 

Geology is a very young science, the fact that continents move wasn’t proven until 1963.  There is very little known about the earth, and there is so much more to discover.

Peter Dartnell:

Peter Dartnell has Bachelor of Science in Oceanography from Humboldt State University and a Masters of Geography from San Francisco State and has been with the USGS for 28 years.

A conversation with Physical Scientist Peter Dartnell:

What does a physical scientist study?

Physical Science is a combination of the studies earth and computer sciences using computers & technology to study earth.

Physical Science allows you to do everything along the scientific “study train” from data collection, interpretation, to publications.

What are your publications used for? 

Scientific publications from the USGS (which is the science agency of the government) are used widely to inform about potential geohazards and changes in the earth.  We don’t make policy, but the information we provide may be used drive policies, especially safety.

Anything you want an aspiring physical scientist to know? 

Even though you are studying earth sciences in school, you’ll truly enjoy once you get out and start applying what you’ve learned in the field with hands on science. 

We’ve met on a ship, where is it you do most of your work?

I spend 75% of my time in the office and 25% in meetings or traveling to study

What is your favorite part of being a Physical Scientist?

Seeing part of the ocean that nobody has ever seen for the first time. We are the first ones to see these recently mapped parts of the sea floor. 

What types of technology you use in physical science?

We use specialized software to acquire data and analyze the data we collect.

We also use Multibeam sonar software – bathymetry and acoustic backscatter

GIS geographic information systems

Overlay/Compare and Contrast data

What do you think are some misconceptions about physical science?

Because we are working off shore and water covers 71% of the earth, marine geology is in its infancy — we really need to have a complete map of the sea floor which is vitally important to understand the geology of the earth. When we don’t have all of these details, we are essentially operating blind.  That’s why the work that NOAA is doing is so important and the research partnerships with USGS are so valuable.

Much of the geography of the seafloor is driven by the oil industry which is required to release their acquired data every 25 years.  A lot of the deep penetration data is all from oil surveys.  Sea floor mapping is limited for pure research purposes due to limited resources.

Interested in learning more from the USGS? 

Check out these resources for students and teachers:

Escape the POD challenge for grades 6-12

K-2 Resources

3-5 Resources

More about bathymetry and the NOAA and USGS mission:

I was lucky enough to attend a “Science Talk” by these USGS scientists which was titled the Subduction Zone Coastal & Marine Geohazards Project. The USGS scientists are guests aboard Fairweather like me. 

The focus of the USGS research is along the 700-mile Cascadia Subduction Zone:                                                                                                                                  

study area
Map of Study Area. Image Credit: USGS scientists Peter Dartnell and James Conrad

This area is where the Juan de Fuca plate dives below the North American Plate at an approximate rate of 1.6 inches per year.

Subduction Zone
Subduction Zone Image Credit: USGS scientists Peter Dartnell and James Conrad

Why is this subduction zone so important and why is NOAA Ship Fairweather out surveying the ocean floor in this area?  That’s because the world’s largest and most destructive earthquakes occur along subduction zones.  If we know the potential hazards, we can prepare people and potentially save lives.

To properly prepare, we need the following details:

slide preparing for earthquakes
What We Need to Prepare for Future Earthquakes
Image Credit: USGS scientists Peter Dartnell and James Conrad

This is why the bathymetric maps of the sea floor are important, they can help predict the area and amount of shaking that may occur during an earthquake and predict the tsunami danger zones.  Then we can make decisions for building codes, infrastructure (like strength of bridges), and escape routes for Tsunamis.  I took the pictures below when I arrived in Newport, little did I know how the research the Fairweather is conducting and the science of hydrography and bathymetric maps play a part in warnings like these! (See below)

Through the hydrographic surveying being conducted aboard Fairweather, the NOAA crew and USGS scientists are creating bathymetric maps which have reveled exciting new finds, such as: new seafloor faults, mapping known faults in greater detail, discovering mud volcanoes and submarine landslides, and using the water column data to discover the “seeps” which are most likely releasing methane gas.  See below.

(Image Credits: USGS scientists Peter Dartnell and James Conrad)

When I first heard the term BATHYMETRY I had no idea how these detailed maps of the seafloor could hold so much critical information!  It’s fascinating to watch this science happen right here and see the discoveries in real time. 


Personal Log

This post begins the last week aboard Fairweather.  I’m surprised about how quickly the ship has begun to feel “normal” to me.  I know my way around backwards (aft) and forwards (bow) and enjoyed getting to know everyone better.  Sean the IT specialist makes an amazing pot of French press coffee around 10:00 am and is kind enough to share with all.  Bekah, Sam, Joe, and Michelle in Hydrography patiently answer dozens of questions and allow me to participate when possible.  And the officers on the bridge answer all the questions and are very welcoming and generous with sharing information and their amazing views!  Carrie and the kitchen crew make 3 amazing meals a day, and I’ve made some new workout buddies to try to stay healthy with all this wonderful food!  The visiting scientists have been very nice about answering all my questions about bathymetry and geology.  It’s great when you are writing and studying about geology to be able to turn around and ask a geologist a question!  

I can’t believe how well I sleep on a ship!  The ship is constantly rocking and for this teacher at sea, and for me, that means some seriously deep sleep.  One thing I learned is to make sure all my belongings are secure before I go to bed.  If you leave something unsecured, chances are they will be banging around in the middle of the night or get tossed off a shelf (not the best middle of the night surprise!).  My room is very dark at night and I really don’t hear anything beyond the noise of the engines.  You can barely hear the foghorn from my area towards the back of the ship which is lucky since those sleeping in the front of the ship could hear it all night!  (Those friends look a little weary today.)  I have to set an alarm, or I will just keep sleeping with the constant rocking motion that is so relaxing!  Only 3 more nights of good ship sleep for me!

Linda Kurtz
The fog horn sounds every 2 minutes when the conditions are, you know, foggy!

Following the excellent tutelage of the NOAA officers, hydrographers, and USGS scientists, it’s exciting to look at the screen in the hydrography lab and start a conversation about features of the sea floor that we are seeing (or seeing in detail) for the first time.  On this mission, there have been new faults, mud volcanoes, and underwater canyons discovered.  The science is so fascinating and so little is known about the research being conducted aboard Fairweather.  I honestly had to “Google” the terms I am now so familiar with like Hydrographic survey, multi beam echo sounders, bathymetry, water column data, just to name a few. 

That’s the thing about science that has been reinforced being a Teacher at Sea, no matter how much you think you know about the earth, you learn just how much we don’t know yet, and we’re just beginning to realize the vast amount that is left to discover. 

Did You Know?

-The ocean covers 71% of the earth’s surface, but we actually know more about the surface Mars than the Earth’s ocean floor- (Credit-Peter Dartnell)

-The Juan de Fuca Plate is part of the famous Ring of Fire, a zone responsible for volcanic activity, mountainous regions, and earthquake activity.

Question of the Day:

Do you know how many tectonic plates there are?  Did you know they are all constantly moving? 

Challenge Yourself

Can you name the Earth’s major tectonic plates?  Can you find on a map the Pacific and Juan de Fuca plates that we are surveying right now?

Animals Seen Today:

Northern Fur Seal

Allison Irwin: Tsunami Awareness, July 10, 2019

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Allison Irwin

NOAA Ship Reuben Lasker

July 7-25, 2019


Mission: Coastal Pelagic Species Survey

Geographic Area: Northern Coast of California

Date: July 10, 2019

Weather at 1600 Pacific Standard Time on Monday 08 July 2019.

We’ve made our way back near the coast and we’re currently progressing south at a cautious 6 knots through a relatively shallow, protected area called Cape Perpetua Marine Reserve.  The winds and sea are both calm. The deck is warm and sunny! The sky has just a few high level clouds that look like wisps of white painted onto a clear blue canvas. A long-sleeved cotton shirt is comfortable in this weather along with long pants and boots.

PERSONAL LOG

Sunday Night

07 July 2019

We left Yaquina Bay just after 1700 on Sunday evening. I was eating dinner when we left and had no idea we were moving. The ship is that smooth when it’s traveling slowly. I made it out just in time to see us pass the boundary between the bay and the Pacific Ocean. My job tonight is to stay up until 0200 so I can prepare for my 12 hour shift that starts Monday and runs from 1400-0200. We’ll see how that works out. I’m typically in bed long before 0200.

As the ship started making its way along the coast this evening, I sat on the Flying Bridge.  The Bridge on a ship is often at one of the highest levels and it’s the command center. The Flying Bridge is one level above that. It is all open air with no windows and no walls (there are railings, of course). It was freeing and frightening at the same time! I think that’s my favorite area on the ship. I plan to go there a lot over the next few weeks to feel the sunshine, clear my head, and prepare for the day. 

One of the scientists on board made a sensible comment yesterday. She said we should walk as much as we can before the ship sails because after that we won’t walk more than a few feet at a time in any given direction. Today I walked 7.5 miles all over Newport Marina. I’m tired, but I’m glad I heeded her advice!

THE SCIENCE

Sunday Morning

07 July 2019

Today I learned more than I ever wanted to know about tsunamis. I went on an estuaries tour with the Hatfield Marine Science Center this morning and we saw a lot of “Tsunami Evacuation Route” signs along our tour. The tour guide explained a tsunami is actually a series of waves and not just one giant wave like we see in movies. Additionally, it doesn’t really “break” the way we’re used to seeing waves crash into the beach. Those waves are caused by the wind moving over the surface of the water. A tsunami reaches the coastline more like a storm surge or like a very strong tide because the energy forcing this wave forward comes from deep within the ocean floor – from seismic or volcanic activity – and not from the wind. Thankfully, in the ocean (where I’ll be for the next three weeks!) a tsunami is only barely noticeable with maybe a three foot height increase. But once the force of all that moving water hits the shallow bottom of our coastline, the water begins to pile up and can reach anywhere from a few feet all the way up to 100 feet above sea level.

The Newport Marina is in a Tsunami Hazard Zone. Most tsunamis tend to be less than ten feet high because energy from the point of origin must travel many miles before reaching a coastline, but the Newport Marina is in a particularly hazardous area because it lies within the Cascadia Subduction Zone. If a major earthquake hits this close to home, a larger than average tsunami could follow in just fifteen minutes! The Newport Marina is only six feet above sea level, so even a relatively small tsunami would cause intense damage from both flooding and debris.

A major earthquake shakes the Cascadia Subduction Zone once every 300-350 years on average. The last major earthquake in Newport, OR occurred in 1700, so… they’re due for another one soon. That might be why the Hatfield Marine Science Center decided to design its brand new building in Newport Marina to be both earthquake and tsunami resistant using state-of-the-art engineering methods. It includes a unique ramp on the outside of the building that spans multiple levels so people have easy access to the evacuation location on top of the roof. After seeing the current evacuation location, a very small hill just across the street from the marina, I think it’s good they’re adding a facility with capacity for another 900 people!

NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS) provides a U.S. Tsunami Warning System. It works much like our system for tornadoes and thunderstorms by communicating four different levels – warnings, advisories, watches, or threats.

TEACHING CONNECTIONS

Sunday Afternoon

7 July 2019

The man I met yesterday while he filleted his catch from Yaquina Bay is still sitting on my mind. He shared his story with me.  When he was 18 years old, he was homeless. He had no connection to school because he didn’t fit into the square peg the narrow curriculum required. Pausing his rhythm with the fish, he tried to explain.

He’s dyslexic. When he was a kid, that threw him a gigantic curve ball. It took him a long time to learn how to adapt and overcome that challenge.  What strikes me about his story is that school didn’t help him, it held him back. Dyslexia is one of the most common types of learning disabilities. Students are faced with challenges in school every day – whether it’s a learning disability or other challenge – and teachers are often there to support, teach, and guide students through those challenges. But I see students every year who, like this gentleman, don’t fit into the script. They’re the outliers who need a different approach. 

Last year my district engaged in a study of Continuous School Improvement. While my understanding of it is still in its infancy, I do know that it requires us to look at multiple forms of data in order to get a wider picture of what is going on in our schools. We then use what we find to determine “where the fire is burning the hottest” (according to our Continuous School Improvement guru working with our district) and correct those issues first. Typically, by correcting those big ticket items, a trickle-down effect occurs that will solve some of the smaller issues organically.

I would definitely categorize the nature of this fisherman’s story as a big ticket item that many districts are trying to understand and correct. We all know that teacher in the building who connects with the students who don’t connect to school. There’s always that one teacher who manages to make this look easy – though it is not. 

Even though reading comprehension, the primary means to learning in most disciplines, is difficult for the gentleman I spoke to at the filleting station, he valued learning so much that he stuck with it even as he failed his classes. He told me that he has thousands of audiobooks and a whole library of traditional books at home which he’s been accumulating for years. We talked about Malcolm Gladwell, tax preparation, real estate, and a host of other diverse topics. He runs his own successful business that he politely called “medium sized” as he smiled, sheepishly at his friend.

I hope, just as I’m sure all teachers hope, that my students who struggle each year will value learning enough to push through the challenges they each face. While I might not always succeed in teaching every student the content of my discipline, I at least hope that they each leave my classroom at the end of the year with a sense of desire to learn more. To not give up when the challenges pummel them, wave after wave, and feel unrelenting. I hope that someone will speak to them one day, 20 years from now, and they’ll wink as they describe how successful they’ve become due to their hard work, resilience, and unshakable love for learning. And that they’ll come to realize strong literacy skills are an integral part of learning.

Teaching Resources

Meg Stewart: Aleutian Islands, Bald Eagles, Wildflowers, and Bunkers, July 8, 2019

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Meg Stewart

Aboard NOAA Ship Fairweather

July 8 – 19, 2019


Mission: Cape Newenham Hydrographic Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea

Date: July 8, 2019

Weather Data from the Bridge
Latitude: 54° 59.104 N
Longitude: 166° 28.938 W
Wind: 21 knots SE
Barometer: 1006.6 mb
Visibility: 10 nautical miles
Temperature: 53° F or 11.5° C
Weather: Partly cloudy, no precipitation

Science and Technology Log

Today, we left the port at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, Alaska and headed toward Cape Newenham. The mission for the Cape Newenham project is to gather detailed ocean depth data in order to knit together a comprehensive and highly detailed surface chart of the seafloor near Cape Newenham. I will talk about that process in my next post.

view of Dutch Harbor
A view of Dutch Harbor, Unalaska. The surrounding hills are volcanic, with just a thin layer of soil, and not a tree to be seen.

Dutch Harbor is a small town with a relatively deep port. The Ship Fairweather has a draft of 15.5 feet. “Draft” is the vertical length between the surface of the water and the bottom of the ship, which is called the hull. A ship’s draft determines the minimum depth of water a vessel can safely navigate and dock at a port. However, though the Fairweather has a 15.5 foot draft, the crew prefers a 20 foot depth of water at a port.

Map of Bering Sea
This overview map shows where Dutch Harbor is in relation to Alaska, the Pacific Ocean, the Aleutian Islands, the Aleutian Trench and Russia. The A-B line is shown for the cross sectional line in the next figure. Cape Newenham is out next destination.

Dutch Harbor is part of Unalaska Island, which is one of the string of Aleutian Islands. The Aleutian Islands are part of the notorious Ring of Fire that marks the edge of the Pacific tectonic plate. As the Pacific Plate moves and grinds past some plates (like along the North American Plate at the San Andreas Fault) or pulls away from other plates (like the Antarctic and Nazca plates, creating the East Pacific Ridge) or plunges beneath other plates (like the Philippine and Indian-Australian plates, where we get deep ocean depressions called the Mariana Trench and Tonga Trench, respectively), we see active volcanism (which is the “fire”) but also lots of earthquakes. The Aleutian Islands are volcanic in origin – the island chain is a volcanic arc – and are a result of oceanic crust of the Pacific Plate being subducted under the oceanic crust of the North American plate. The deep depression at this tectonic boundary – also called a subduction zone – is called the Aleutian Trench.

Aleutian Trench
Referring to the A-B line shown in the overview map above, this cross section shows the mechanics of the subduction zone at the Aleutian Trench at Unalaska Island.
Aleutian Trench tectonic map
This is a tectonic map of the Aleutian Trench area (the symbol shown as a dark black curved line indicates a subduction zone). The map shows the relative motion of the Pacific and North American plates. It is clipped from the New York State Earth Science Reference Table

Looking at a schematic drawing of the side-view, or cross section, of the Aleutian subduction zone, we can visualize what this looks like beneath the surface. The older and more dense oceanic crust of the Pacific Plate is plunging under the younger oceanic crust of the North American Plate – the more dense material sinks down or subducts – and the less dense material stays floating on top, and this process is all due to gravity. With time, as the oceanic material is drawn deeper into the subduction zone, it becomes hotter, starts to melt and then comes back up to the surface as volcanic material and a string of volcanoes forming parallel – and in this case, forming an arc – to the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate.

Personal Log

Arriving at NOAA Ship Fairweather
Arriving at NOAA Ship Fairweather

I arrived at Dutch Harbor on July 6, after 14 hours and three legs of air travel. Fortunately, I made all my connections and my luggage arrived at the tiny Dutch Harbor airport. I was picked up by welcome smile for a nice person from the Ship Fairweather, got to the port and settled in to my stateroom. The “stateroom” is my sleeping quarters or room. I have it all to myself, it is very comfortable with a sink, a small bed, drawers and a closet to fit all my stuff, and there’s a TV that I haven’t yet figured out how to work.

My stateroom
My stateroom or sleeping quarters. Caution: panoramic photos make everything look larger than they really are.

Did You Know?

On my second day in Dutch Harbor, I went out with some new friends from the ship on a lovely hike on nearby Bunker Hill. I saw so many beautiful wildflowers along the trek and an enormous number of bald eagles. I had no idea that bald eagles would be so plentiful here, but they were everywhere. It was amazing! But the other interesting thing about this hike were the bunkers.  In June 1942, Dutch Harbor was bombed by the Japanese Navy (six months after Pearl Harbor) during World War II. At the time of the raid, Alaska was a U.S. territory, and following the bombing, the bunkers of the now-known-as Bunker Hill were built to help defend not only Alaska but the west coast of mainland U.S. And here I thought Dutch Harbor was only known for Deadliest Catch!

Quote of the Day

“Even if you never have the chance to see or touch the ocean, the ocean touches you with every breath you take, every drop of water you drink, every bite you consume. Everyone, everywhere is inextricably connected to and utterly dependent upon the existence of the sea.” Sylvia Earle

Tom Savage: The Physical Geography of the Aleutian Islands, August 16, 2015

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Tom Savage

Aboard NOAA Ship Fairweather

August 6 – 23, 2018

 

 

Mission: Arctic Access Hydrographic Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Point Hope, northwest Alaska

Date: August 16, 2018

Weather Data from the Bridge

Latitude  68   38.8 N
Longitude – 166  23.8  W
Air temperature: 10 C
Dry bulb   10 C
Wet bulb  8.9 C
Visibility: 8 Nautical Miles   (8.8 miles)
Wind speed: 26 knots
Wind direction: east
Barometer: 1007  millibars
Cloud Height: 2 K feet
Waves: 6 feet

Sunrise: 6:33 am
Sunset: 11:51 pm

Physical Geography of Aleutian Islands

The Aleutian Islands are a product of a subduction zone between the North American and the Pacific Plate and known as the Aleutian Arc. Along this boundary, the Pacific Plate is being subducted underneath the North American Plate due to the difference in density.  As a result, the plate heats up, melts and forms volcanoes.  In this case the islands are classified as volcanic arcs.  As a result of this collision, along the boundary the Aleutian Trench was formed and the deepest section measures 25,663 ft!  For comparison purposes, the deepest point in the ocean is located in the Mariana’s Trench at 36,070 feet (6.8 miles)! Through the use of radioisotopic dating of basalt rocks throughout the Aleutians, geologists have concluded the formation of the island chain occurred 35 million years ago. (USGS). Today, there are 14 volcanic islands and an additional 55 smaller islands making up the island chain.

ConvergentBoundary

The Aleutian Islands – yellow line indicates subduction boundary (Courtesy of US Geologic Survey)

On the map above, the Aleutian Islands appear small. However, they extend an area of 6,821 sq mi and extend out to 1,200 miles!  In comparison, North Carolina from the westernmost point to the Outer Banks is 560 miles, half of the Aleutian Islands.  It takes roughly ten hours to drive from Murphy NC (western NC)  to the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Since this region of the North American plate and the Pacific Plate are both oceanic plates, Island Arcs are formed.  This is the same classification as the Bahamas, located southeast of Florida.

North American and Pacific Plates

Convergence of North American and Pacific Plates – Image courtesy of US Geologic Survey

 

Oceanic-OceanicPlate

Convergence of two Oceanic Plate – Image courtesy of US Geologic Survey

The image above depicts a cross section of the geological forces that shaped the Aleutian Islands.  As the two plates collide, the oceanic crust is subducted under the lithosphere further offshore thus generating the island arcs.  Unlike the west coasts of Washington, Oregon and California,  there is an oceanic/continental collision of plates resulting in the formation of volcanoes further on the continental crust, hundreds of miles inland.  Examples are Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, and Mount St. Helen’s which erupted in 1980.

Alpine Glaciers are prevalent throughout the mountainous region of Alaska. What about the Aleutians Islands? Today there are a few small alpine glaciers existing on Aleutian Islands. Alpine glacier on the Attu Island is one example, which is the western most island.

 

Personal Log 

One truth about being at sea is don’t trust the wall, floor or ceiling. Sometimes, the wall will become the floor or the ceiling will become the wall 🙂 Lately, the seas have become this ongoing amusement park ride.  Although the weather has been a bit rough, data collection continues with the ship.  The weather outside is more reflective of fall and winter back in North Carolina, though we have not seen any snow flakes.  After surfing the waves yesterday while collecting data, today the hydrographers are processing data collected over the past few days.

Yesterday was whale day!  Early afternoon, humpbacks were spotted from the port side of the ship (left side).   As the afternoon went on, humpbacks were spotted all around the Fairweather, at distances of 0.5 miles to 5 miles.  Humpbacks are considered the “Clowns of the Seas” according to many marine biologists.  Identifying whales can be tricky especially if they are distances greater than a few miles. Humpbacks are famous for breaching the water and putting on a show,  Yesterday we did not witness this behavior, however they were showing off their beautiful flukes.

Humpback whale fluke

Humpback whale fluke, photo courtesy of NOAA

 

Question of the Day:    Which whale species, when surfacing, generates a v shape blow?

Until next time, happy sailing!
Tom