Jennifer Dean: Data Analysis and Downward Dog, May 17, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Jennifer Dean

Aboard NOAA Ship Pisces

May 12 – May 24th, 2018

Mission: Conduct ROV and multibeam sonar surveys inside and outside six marine protected areas (MPAs) and the Oculina Experimental Closed Area (OECA) to assess the efficacy of this management tool to protect species of the snapper grouper complex and Oculina coral

Geographic Area of Cruise: Continental shelf edge of the South Atlantic Bight between Port Canaveral, FL and Cape Hatteras, NC

Date: May 17th, 2018

Weather Data from the Bridge
Latitude:  23° 29.6290’ N
Longitude: 80° 09.6070’ W
Sea Wave Height: 2-3 feet
Wind Speed:  18.2 knots
Wind Direction: 199.3°
Visibility: 89 nautical miles
Air Temperature: 25.3°C
Sky: Scattered clouds

Science and Technology Log

Software: ArcGIS and Microsoft Access
Data processing may be seen by some to be a less glamorous role compared to ROV operators and their joysticks.  But data management is essential for communicating and validating findings of the ROV dives.  Huge data sets are created on each dive.  24,000 records were created on just 2 dives that needed to be inventoried and processed.

Processing Photos

Stephanie Farrington processing the photo grabs taken every 2 minutes from the dive

Stephanie Farrington, Biological Research Specialist with Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University, gave me a crash course on data management that may be better explained through some of the pictures and activities I was involved in below.  Two types of software seemed of particular significance, ArcGIS and Microsoft Access.

 

 

ArcGIS screen

ArcGIS (Geographic Information System) provides layers of information

ArcGIS (Geographic Information System) provides layers of information, anything from land use patterns, topography to local data for an area on water quality or hurricane patterns.  The software allows you to stack this information on top of each other geographically to look for patterns or to make graphic and visual displays of complex data sets.  On May 16th the dive gathered footage at two sites where barges were dropped to the ocean floor in 2014, one at approximately 80 meters and the other at 100 meters.  After seeing that the structure had undergone considerable changes in its integrity, a question arose about the potential impact a hurricane could have made with these barge structures.  The photo above is an example of a layer of information on hurricane travel patterns and how GIS might be used to make predictions on whether this sort of event could have impacted the barge wreck sites integrity.

Access is a Relational Database and is used as an information and storage management tool for larger data sets. It is less prone to errors compared to Excel and better for managing “big data”.  One skill Stephanie demonstrated to me was her code writing abilities that, once written, allow the keyboard and the database to communicate with each other.  As I typed in the key for “new note,” the image below with the heading on the right saying “Site Number” would pop up ready for me to enter information about the type of bottom substrate, the slope and other features of the sample site. Each of these button choices immediately populated the database and created a running record of the dive’s key features.  Microsoft Access is built using SQL and uses VBA script to create macros (repeated, automatic behaviors).

X-Keyboard

Keyboard programmed to automatically communicate information into a database for quick counts and standard methods of habitat classifications

The X-Keyboard was purchased from a company called P.I. Engineering and comes with its own GUI (Graphical User Interface) for programming the individual keys.

In the image below is an example of a portion of one of John Reed’s notes taken during the dive to record times, observations and coral reef communities observed.  Notice that Weather, Salinity, Wind Direction and Depth are all added into the notes as well as discrepancies or issues that arise.  Notes on this page demonstrate a point early in the dive when it became clear the map features between the ROV operator and Stephanie’s screen were off by many meters, this was because an incorrect Geographic Datum (the screen displaying in WGS 1984 but the ROV feed was being sent to the screen in NAD 1983 causing a false skew in the visualized data stream).

The bathymetric data collected by NOAA is available here for anyone to download;
https://maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/bathymetry/ 

The following links provides more information on the differences between Excel and Access and the advantages and disadvantages.  And additional information on the uses of GIS.
https://www.weather.gov/gis/
https://webgis.wr.usgs.gov/globalgis/tutorials/arcview.htm
https://www.opengatesw.net/ms-access-tutorials/What-Is-Microsoft-Access-Used-For.htm

Personal Log

How many people can say that one of their first yoga experiences happened on the flying bridge on a NOAA ship in an offshore location in the Atlantic?  LT Felicia Drummond, a newly certified yoga instructor, introduced us to Ashtanga yoga philosophy and techniques, and I finally know what the pose downward dog should look like.  Ashtanga yoga philosophy focuses on breathing and balanced movements to build the strength of your core and muscles.

yoga

Forward fold = Uttanansana

Classes held on the ship’s deck like this would certainly tone one’s body and improve your focus. There are standing, sitting and finishing poses.   I considered myself lucky if I didn’t fall on my face or crash into the pillars with anything but a sitting pose.  But it reminded me of the balance needed in life- both in the physical and mental demands we put on ourselves.  Even at sea there is a need to search for these moments of time to quiet our mind.

Today I am reminded of the different ways of knowing.  I have always been a bit of a bookworm, introverted and learning through textbook study.  But learning through experience on this ship is a whole different level in the depth of comprehension. I am immersed in both the history and story-telling of the original discovery of these reefs by watching 1970’s footage of Professor John Reed’s first “Lock-Out” dives within Florida’s Deep-Water Oculina Reefs.  At the same time I am witnessing and participating first-hand in the collection of new data in similar locations.  Although it is sad to see some of the trawling devastation of the past, the regrowth of these areas and the dedication to their protection brings a positive message for me to share with my students.  I am excited to share the video I watched today with them when I return and the story about a Warsaw grouper, Hyporthodus nigritus, that tried to steal calipers during Professor Reed’s coral measurements many years ago.  To read more about some of  Reed’s work click on the hyperlink.

Did You Know?

fireworm

Hermodice carunculate, Bearded Fireworm

Hermodice carunculate, the Bearded Fireworm, bristle out their setae upon touch and those setae act like hypodermic needles to inject a powerful neurotoxin into the offending predator or careless tourist.  The injury can give a sensation that feels like a fire burning for hours.  It reminded me of a fuzzy underwater centipede. This creature was spotted on an ROV dive near a sunken barge at around 100 meters.  Others were clustered along the walls of the barge that were encrusted with oysters and a few purple sea urchins.  Seen in this image next to the Fireworm are hermit crabs.
https://www.scienceandthesea.org/program/201701/fireworm

Fact or Fiction?

NOAA ships never leave port on Fridays.   Check the links below for more information  about marine operations and for Fisheries superstitions.
https://www.omao.noaa.gov/learn/marine-operations/ships
https://nmssanctuaries.blob.core.windows.net/sanctuaries-prod/media/archive/education/voicesofthebay/pdfs/superstitions.pdf

What’s My Story?     Jason White

Jason White at the ROV controls.

Jason White at the ROV controls.

The following section of the blog is dedicated to explaining the story of one crew member on NOAA ship Pisces.

What is your specific title and job description on this mission?  ROV Pilot/Technician.  He assists in keeping the ROV running efficiently and safely.   His job includes taking turns on this mission with Eric Glidden to pilot the ROV and deploy and recovery of the ROV from the ship.

How long have you worked for University of North Carolina? He has worked for University of North Carolina for almost 5 years.

What is your favorite and least favorite part of your job? Troubleshooting computer problems is his least favorite part of the job. His favorite part of the job is getting to work with different scientists from all around the United States and world on different types of scientific projects.

When did you first become interested in this career (oceanography) and why?  He grew up watching the weather channel and surfing in North Carolina.  Dr. Steve Lyons on weather channel and predicting surf inspired his original interest in the study of meteorology/oceanography.

What science classes or other opportunities would you recommend to high school students who are interested in preparing for this sort of career? He said if you are a student interested in the technical aspect of the study of oceanography you should look for a marine technology program at a university or community college.  He uses a lot of math and physics and recommends at the high school level to take a full course load in bothHe also recommends taking any available electronic classes and stay proficient in computers.

What is one of the most interesting places you have visited?  His most interesting trip was in the Philippines where he ate white rice for 2 weeks straight and people were on the back deck of the ship fishing for the very same fish he was collecting video footage on.  He mentioned that the Philippines had the most beautiful coral he had ever seen.

Questions from my Environmental Science Students in Camas, WA 

How heavy is the ROV? With the skid on it, approximately 800 lbs

How tough is it? Moderately –you can run the ROV into things but don’t want to run into a steel ship or you break things.

How expensive is it? If it somehow broke, what would you have to do?  Try and repair it on the ship with spare parts?  A half-million dollars.  Yes.  They have spares for most everything except the high definition video camera and digital stills camera, which cost $27,000 and $32,000 respectively.

How many cameras are on the ROV and how easy is it to maneuver? 5. One main video camera to navigate the ROV, digital still camera, 3 lipstick cameras on the skid to collect samples and see with the manipulator.  If there is no current then the ROV is fairly easy to maneuver but when conditions decrease by, murkiness, current (more than ½ knot)  or terrain is in high relief it becomes more difficult.  Ship wrecks with steel debris are also especially difficult to maneuver around.

What is the ROV like to control, does it respond quickly or is there a lag time from when you control it to when it responds? It instantaneously responds. 

Do you have to have training to be able to operate it? It is on the job training however there are a few ROV specific training schools around the country.

Labelled image of ROV

A labeled diagram of an ROV

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Jennifer Dean: Sampling the Sea Floor, May 15, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Jennifer Dean

Aboard NOAA Ship Pisces

May 12 – May 24, 2018

Mission: Conduct ROV and multibeam sonar surveys inside and outside six marine protected areas (MPAs) and the Oculina Experimental Closed Area (OECA) to assess the efficacy of this management tool to protect species of the snapper grouper complex and Oculina coral

Geographic Area of Cruise: Continental shelf edge of the South Atlantic Bight between Port Canaveral, FL and Cape Hatteras, NC 

Date: May 15, 2018

Weather from the Bridge
Latitude: 32° 23.3070’ N
Longitude: 79°02.4555’ W
Sea Wave Height: 2-3 feet
Wind Speed:  10.7 knots
Wind Direction: 131.42°
Visibility:  10 nautical miles
Air Temperature: 25.1°C
Sky:  Scattered Cloud Cover

Science and Technology Log

Multibeam Bathymetry
Lieutenant Jamie Hart (seen on the bridge in the picture below) explained how sonar pings allow software to paint a picture of the ocean floor.

Communication between the bridge, the technicians and the scientists are continuous to keep the mission coordinated and progressing.

With GPS that determines the latitude and longitude, the sonar determines the last piece of information to gain a three-dimensional view.  Adjustments have to be made below deck by Mr. Todd Walsh, Hydrographic senior technician (see previous post for additional information). The echo of return waves are detected downstream and calibrated to adjust for time, salinity, depth and a host of other factors to create the images used by the scientist to choose a path for sampling.

Images like the ones above are being used to determine locations for the ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) dives and to aid in navigation during the collection of samples and observations when running transects for inventory of the fish, coral and habitat.

Robotic Arms and Taking Samples of Coral and Sponges

Screen displays in front of the ROV operator, Eric Glidden, includes information on the sea floor gathered from the multibeam sonar technology. Other screens include information coming in from a still camera, cameras that are set to view the sampling bottles and drawers, as well as high definition images of the live ocean floor feed ahead of the ROV and images from cameras directly on the robotic arm.  The blue image in the picture is Pisces, another smaller red image not visible on this photo is the location of the ROV. The ROV operator ensures that there are no collisions, even if there is a loss of power or other malfunction, the ROV floats to the surface for recovery.

Two modes of sampling with ROV attachments visible in this image; on the left a suction hose and on the right is the robotic claw, used both to maneuver the hose and to grab samples for removal from the ocean floor by twisting and rotating the claw device. Using this arm reminds me a bit of those arcade area claws where one attempts to grab that coveted stuffed animal prize to have it ultimately not clasp or drop the treasure.  Unlike these games, the ROV operator and the claw expertly grasp and deposit coral and sponges with a 5 function arm system.

For a fun engineering activity that models these robotic systems visit this activity https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/okeanos/edu/collection/media/hdwe-URRobot56.pdf

After samples are recovered topside they are brought inside the wet lab for processing, barcoding, photographing and for those samples needing genetic analysis, placed in vials and test tubes filled with ethanol for longer term storage and preservation of the coral’s tissues.

John K. Reed (Biologist/Taxonomist) discusses the sampling of a recovered sponge with Felicia Drummond (LT NOAA Corps).  Dr. Reed explains to me the octagonal polyps to look for when identifying this particular type of coral.

Caribbean Spiny lobster

Caribbean Spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. One of the many biotic factors observed on this ROV dive.

Other highlights this day were observations of two sandbar sharks and a stout moray eel, spotted on May 14th dive, and May 13th respectively.

Personal Log

May 13th, day 2 on the ship, I had one of the most surreal experiences of my life. I found myself playing corn hole off the back of a ship in the Atlantic ocean with Navy officers, deckhands, stewards, engineers and scientists at sunset. For those of you that may not have heard of such a game, it involves throwing 4 bean bags at a hole.  Landing on the board seen in the pictures without sliding off, is a point.  Getting the bean bag into the hole is 3 points.  First team to 12 wins.  I enjoyed the additional challenge of being on a swaying ship, keeping one’s balance and making the toss, all at the same time.

This was a fun and an amazing day with a fire hose dose of information coming at me.  There are so many interesting directions of study pulling for my attention.  I am curious about the formation of the ocean floor that gives the appearance of ancient Mayan formations.  The evolution of these block-like limestone formations created from water erosion and the laying down of sediment layers makes for beautiful habitat for a diversity of creatures seen during the dives.  Yet the biotic factors are equally fascinating to study with their adaptations of form, corals with polyps that have 6 tentacles, belonging to a subclass of Hexacoralia to 8 tentacles, from another subclass Octacoralia.  What advantages and disadvantages do these differences in form provide to these creatures in their marine environment?  Some of these hard corals we are observing and collecting evolved back in the Miocene.  To learn more about coral and for ideas and activities for teaching about coral evolution visit this site:  https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/corals/coral04_reefs.html

Last, but not least, I was on this adventure during Mother’s Day, so I not only want to thank my own mother for helping to get my daughters to school and looking after pets and plants during my absence, but for being a constant and committed pillar of support for me growing up and now into my adult life.  I wouldn’t be living the dream without her guidance and not to mention those brutal critiques of my writing over the decades.  Thanks to my mom and all the others mom’s out there reading this blog!  Happy Belated Mother’s Day.

Did You Know?
Scientists make observations about not only a sponges’ appearance but also its texture and smell.  Some are very stinky giving off odors similar to that of a rotten egg and vomit while others can emit a spicy aroma!

Fact or Fiction?
Excretions from certain sponges are demonstrating pancreatic cancer fighting properties.  Additional information can be found at this link for the extra curious:
http://www.fau.edu/newsdesk/articles/marine-sponge.php

What’s My Story?  Stacey Harter
The following section of the blog is dedicated to explaining the story of one crew member on Pisces.

What is your specific title and job description on this mission?  Chief Scientist and Fisheries Ecologist

Stacey Harter

Stacey Harter, Chief Scientist and Fisheries Ecologist, posing after emergency training

How long have you worked for NOAA?  16 years

What path did you take to get to your current position?  Undergraduate at Florida State University with a degree in Biology;  As an undergraduate, she did an internship at the Panama City lab and fell in love with the research side of marine science. She got her Master’s degree in marine science at the University of South Alabama and at the end of her Master’s she took a position as a contractor for 5 years before becoming a staff member with NOAA as a federal employee.

What is your favorite and least favorite part of your job? She enjoys going to the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council meetings and giving them information on what they have learned about the MPAs and then seeing that data being used to make management decisions.
Reading all the ROV data is quite time consuming and can become monotonous at times.

When did you first become interested in this career and why? Even though Stacey grew up in landlocked New York, her passion for marine science started early on with visits to Sea World and watching the Discovery channel as a kid. In high school she realized that she could take this interest in the marine world and make a career out of it.

What science classes or other opportunities would you recommend to high school students who are interested in preparing for this sort of career?  She recommends as much math and science as one can take.  She highly recommends students participate in internships.  She has witnessed many times over the years that these internship opportunities later turn into long-term employment. In addition she recommends students volunteer in research labs and try to experience as many aspects of the different parts of the career as possible.

What is one of the most interesting places you have visited for work?Around 2009 she went down in a manned submersible and explored the unique deep ocean communities at 2500 feet. She was blown away by the incredible different and original biota found in this environment.

Do you have a typical day? Or tasks and skills that you perform routinely in this job? Her typical day involves identifying fish species on video footage collected during and after dives. Another task she regularly performs is using software programs like Access and Excel for data analysis. She shared that about every couple of years she communicates their research by attending both scientific meetings and delivering information to the South Atlantic Fisheries Management Council.

Has technology impacted the way you do your job from when you first started to the present? Definitely.  When she first started, pad and paper were used for recording dive information and species observed which was later entered after a dive into Excel.  Now everything is done digitally and directly into computer software as the dive occurs.  In addition to the approach to data collection, media storage has changed with how video footage is stored into hard drives rather than on mini-DV tapes.

What is one misconception or scientific claim you hear about how the ocean and atmosphere works and/or NOAA’s mission that you wished the general public had a greater awareness of? She doesn’t spend all of her time on boats doing field work. While field work is a fun, it is actually a very small portion of the job. She actually spends about 90% of her time at a desk in front of her computer analyzing data and writing reports.

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Mary Cook: Final Day, March 30, 2016

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Mary Cook
Onboard R/V Norseman II
March 18-30, 2016

Mission: Deepwater Ecosystems of Glacier Bay National Park
Geographical Area of Cruise: Glacier Bay, Alaska
Date: Wednesday, March 30, 2016
Time: 8:33 am

Data from the Bridge
Temperature:
40.6°F
Pressure: 1031 millibars
Location: N 58°38.406’, W 136°07.990’

Science and Sea Stories Log

When I heard that this Deep Sea Exploration voyage was going to have a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) working in addition to scuba divers, I was so excited! To be able to watch the operations and meet the people who do the work has been a particular fascination for me on this voyage. I’ve always loved the exploration of the ocean using vessels that can go where humans have limitations.

Kraken2 for the 3-30 blog

The ROV Kraken 2 is owned and operated by the University of Connecticut (UConn)

Crew deploys ROV

Crew deploys the ROV

The big yellow Kraken 2 sits on the stern of the R/V Norseman II. It is a modified ROV that has been customized for special tasks in science research. Kraken 2 is owned and operated by the University of Connecticut. Kraken 2 is usually contracted to do science research for the U.S. government or University clients, but has also done a few jobs of surveying and archaeological work on shipwrecks. Kevin, Matt, Eric, Mike, and Jeff are the members of the ROV team for this voyage. These cool guys have an eclectic background of geography, marine ecology, and engineering coupled with a love of electronics and the computer side of things.

 

The main parts of the 2,400 lb. Kraken 2 are:

-The big yellow top made of syntactic foam that provides 900 lbs. of buoyancy, which helps maintain neutral buoyancy in water.

-Kraken 2 is tethered to the ship by the green umbilical, which provides power and communications between ship and ROV.

-Kraken 2 carries a number of cameras and lights. Big high intensity lights that provide warm light deep underwater.

-Kraken 2 uses a number of High Definition video and digital still cameras – similar to a camera you might have at home. The video camera has been deconstructed and put into a canister that can withstand high water pressure. These are positioned to get various angles and provide different views around the ROV.

-When the visibility is not good the operators rely on sonar. This allows them to “see with sound” what is in front of Kraken 2 up to 100 meters and helps them make maneuvering decisions.

-An altimeter, which measures height off the bottom and a pressure sensor that determines depth.

-The USBL (ultra short baseline) tracking system has a transducer that emits sound pulses and transponder that receives and sends a pulse back. It can track the vehicle in relation to the ship. All these sound devices are important in marine navigation for obstacle avoidance.

Sample Quivers on ROV

Quivers to hold coral samples

-The manipulator arm is sometimes called the claw. It is very important for collecting samples such as pieces of Primnoa pacifica. An acrylic vacuum tube is also attached onto the arm for “sucking” up moving or delicate samples such as fish and jellyfish. The manipulator arm is used to put samples into quivers then drops a heavy rubber stopper on top to seal it until it is brought to the surface for scientific processing.

 

 

 

There are three people working to “drive” Kraken 2 during deployment. The winch driver gently lifts Kraken 2 from the ship’s stern into the water and also keeps the ROV from crashing into the bottom of the ocean. The pilot is working on the finesse of getting into delicate areas. The navigator operates the claw while maintaining a close dialog with the Bridge. The cameras, radar, and sonar monitors along with the remote controls are all house in a metal shipping container called the Van.

ROV Van Door

Door to the ROV “Van”

Matt and Mike drive the ROV from within the van. The Science Leader in the last picture is Cheryl.

 

Kraken 2 is a unique ROV for the niche it occupies. It is a science class ROV.

Most Science Class ROVs are large about the size of a small truck and require a dedicated ship and personnel. The advantages of Kraken 2 are that it doesn’t go as deep (up to 1 km) therefore, isn’t as expensive. Smaller ships can deploy it. It’s an excellent ROV for continental shelf and slope exploration.

One night Qanuk got to go down with Kraken 2! Mike attached him to the frame. He is probably the first bald eagle to ever attempt such a feat. Qanuk was videoed as he explored the depths and even had his photo taken with Primnoa pacifica in situ.

 

Personal Log

Today concludes my voyage as a NOAA Teacher at Sea. Wow! It has been amazing to be a part of the Deepwater Exploration of Glacier Bay. Getting to work alongside scientists, engineers and ship’s crew that are doing adventuresome and cutting-edge work is a dream come true for me. A special “Thank you” to Dr. Rhian Waller, as Lead Scientist for accepting a Teacher at Sea on board to work with her project. I am so thankful that they all welcomed me into their work space and were willing to teach me how to do some helpful things like processing coral for reproductive studies. These people are teachers in their own right. Their enthusiasm for their work and for learning new things is infectious and I plan to carry that attitude back to my students in Scammon Bay, infusing my classroom with awe and excitement to be brave, conscientious, problem-solving citizens of our magnificent Earth!

Mary Cook: Day 7, March 25, 2016

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Mary Cook
Onboard R/V Norseman II
March 18-30, 2016

Mission: Deepwater Ecosystems of Glacier Bay National Park
Geographical Area of Cruise: Glacier Bay, Alaska
Date: Friday, March 25, 2016
Time: 6:49 pm

Data from the Bridge
Temperature:
35.1°F
Pressure: 1012 millibars
Speed: 0.2 knots
Location: N 58°52.509’, W 137°04.299’

Science Log

Last night we headed out to open-sea and the waters got a bit rougher. I felt queasy so I took seasick meds and went to sleep. We steamed ahead to open sea and arrived to the site for our ROV dive. But the ROV dive didn’t occur due to a mechanical problem with the ship’s engine, so we headed back into the Bay on toward Johns Hopkins glacier for another round of sampling. Today was a very good day for many of the scientists to get a much-needed rest. The ship’s labs were quiet as we traveled back to the glacier. The ship’s crew on the other hand did not get a break. The ship must still be piloted. The galley work continued with meal preparation. The engine room and all of the ship’s operations were still in working mode.

Once we arrived at Johns Hopkins glacier, the ROV proceedings for the night began. It didn’t take long to find Primnoa pacifica! Samples were being carefully taken and put into quivers until resurfacing in the morning.

ROV Quivers for Samples

ROV samples stored in quivers overnight

 

There are all sorts of other important work that’s occurring in addition to coral collection. One of those is water sampling.

Amanda water sample

Amanda filters water samples

Scientist/Diver Amanda Kelley helps with filtering seawater collected in a Niskin bottle attached to the ROV Kraken. The Niskin bottle has plugs at both ends that are propped open to allow it to fill with water. When the plugs are tripped, the water at a certain depth is collected and sealed so that no other water will enter that sample.

Niskin bottle demo

Dann Blackwood demonstrates Niskin bottle mechanics

Filtering the water sample will help determine the concentration of particulate organic matter in a given amount of seawater at the same location of the Primnoa pacifica being collected. Scientists are trying to determine if the corals derive their food from the particulate organic matter or chemosynthetic sources. The filtered matter will be used to assess for the presence of nitrogen and carbon isotopes helping the scientists better understand the nutritional pathways of the coral ecosystem within Glacier Bay.

The scientists are measuring as many environmental variables as possible and hoping to link these to the health of the coral in Glacier Bay.

Accurate record keeping is of the utmost importance!
Oh my goodness! There are backups to the backups!

Kathy recording data

Kathy records data and checks the logbooks

Geologist Kathy Scanlon shares that she is putting geographic position data into a Geographic Information System (GIS), a digital mapping system, along with the other data collected such as diver comments and coral samples.

Kathy and GIS

Kathy records data in the Geographic Information System (GIS)

In a nutshell, it’s a way to organize data based on geographic location. In the process of gleaning this information, she says it’s also a great way of double-checking the record keeping for any inconsistencies. Another backup to the backups!
Some of the data points being recorded and re-recorded are date, time, site, depth, species, several reference numbers, and diver’s comments.

In addition to samples of Primnoa pacifica being collected, the divers are gathering samples of other organisms for documentation. These scientist divers are looking for something new—something they don’t recognize—possibly a new species or an extension of a known species location. When they surface with something unusual to them, the excitement is palpable! Everyone on the ship wants to see what’s new!

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Personal Blog

Today I’ve been a bit groggy because seasick meds make me sleepy, but I was glad to avoid the “5-star barfing” as one person described their seasick experience.

I’m so impressed with the enthusiasm for education amongst the people involved with this scientific cruise. Yesterday, I met several people at Bartlett Cove who were reading my blog and keeping up with this research cruise. All the scientists and crew onboard the Norseman II are willing and eager to answer any of my questions.

I got an email from a co-worker, Holly, one of Scammon Bay’s English teachers! She told me that she shared my blog with two of her classes and used it as a journaling prompt. Also, our principal Melissa Rivers, is sharing photos and facts with the entire school on a monitor in the Commons. I so appreciate the enthusiasm from my co-workers and their willingness to help our students learn about this cutting-edge research being done in Alaska. What a wonderful opportunity to learn and expand our horizons together!
Thanks again for your support and interest!

Where’s Qanuk?

Mary Cook: Day 4 at Sea, March 22, 2016

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Mary Cook
Onboard R/V Norseman II
March 18-30, 2016

Mission: Deepwater Ecosystems of Glacier Bay National Park
Geographical Area of Cruise: Glacier Bay, Alaska
Date: Tuesday, March 22, 2016
Time: 7:40pm

Data from the Bridge
Temperature:
37.6°F
Pressure: 1013 millibars
Speed: 0.0 knots
Location: N 58°51.902’: W 137°04.737’

Science Log

Happy Birthday to Cheryl!

Cheryl small

This is Cheryl!

Unbeknownst to Cheryl, Chief Scientist Rhian Waller, even though she was very busy preparing for the cruise, brought balloons, streamers, candles, and noisemakers to celebrate Cheryl’s birthday today.

Birthday Decor small

Surprise Birthday Decor

The ship’s chef is secretly making her a cake. The celebration is slated for tonight at dinner. Shhhhh……

This morning, Chief Scientist Rhian Waller announced that we are steaming toward the end of the west arm of Glacier Bay to Johns Hopkins Glacier. This is a place where cruise ships take tourists in the Fall. But the Park Service has it closed during the Spring and Summertime because it’s a harbor seal nursery. The nightshift workers are trying to catch a few winks of sleep before we get there. No one wants to miss it. We are hoping for clear skies. Johns Hopkins Glacier is one of the few glaciers that is advancing instead of receding. As it advances, it is joining the Gilliman Glacier.

Park Service Map small

Map showing John Hopkins Glacier. Credit: National Park Service

It’s 10:30 am and we’ve arrived sooner than I expected. Johns Hopkins Glacier is really something to see! So massive. Once again everyone is out on deck taking pictures and oohing and aahing.

The glacier has shades of blue and white with streaks of brown and gray. It has a covering of white snow that looks like cake icing. The glassy water is a blue-green color with a multitude of icebergs floating in it. Bob Stone uses a term we all like—“bergy bits”—meaning small pieces of floating ice. He even brought some “bergy bits” onto the ship for us to add to our water or soft drinks. So refreshing!

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While on deck taking pictures we hoped to see the glacier calve and fall into the sea. It sounds like thunder. We waited and we waited and finally a couple of small ones happened. Also, a couple of snow avalanches slid off the mountains into the water leaving dirty brown streaks along the slopes.

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Occasional avalanches leave dirty streaks in the glacier’s white snow covering

Our scuba divers went down for another exploratory look and came up with a first! They found Primnoa pacifica in the West Arm! This is the first Primnoa pacifica ever found here. They described it as spindly and small in comparison to the others found in the East Arm.

The scuba divers continue their search for Red Tree Coral.

The significance of this Red Tree Coral being in the shallow water is that it has been considered a deep-water coral. There are two broad categories of coral: warm-water coral and cold-water coral. Generally, warm-water coral live in shallow, tropical waters. Cold-water coral live in deep water. The emergence of cold-water corals like Primnoa pacifica in the shallow waters of Glacier Bay has caused scientists to re-evaluate their understanding and descriptions of these organisms.

The third and last scuba dive for today was described as “mud, mud, and more mud”. A bit of a disappointment but they did bring up an interesting little critter.

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Maybe a sea peach?

This sea squirt is a tan color here in the wet lab, but according to Bob, in its natural habitat it has a bright cherry red color.

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Birthday party for Cheryl!

Well, it’s finally suppertime! That means “Birthday Party Time!” The ship’s chef, Harry served up a delicious meal of salmon, barbeque chicken, steamed kale, baked summer squash, scalloped potatoes and a big salad. For dessert, he prepared a layered chocolate cake with freshly made whipped cream and strawberries. Everyone sang “Happy Birthday” to Cheryl.

After she blew out the candles we went out on the deck and ate cake with new friends in the view of majestic mountains and glaciers.

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A birthday to remember, I’ll say.

Now it’s back to work and the ROV crew is getting ready to deploy Kraken 2 for another night of exploration!

 

Personal Log

Today has been a day of anticipation and inspiring wonder. I’ve tried to stay out on deck watching the glacier. Hoping for calving and avalanches. It’s really neat to me that no one else is here. We haven’t seen anyone else except four Park Service employees who boated out to meet us today. I found out that there are over 1,000 glaciers in Glacier Bay National Park! Some of them aren’t even named. I enjoyed watching a couple of bald eagles sitting on icebergs. And the absolute coolest thing has been the discovery of Primnoa pacifica in the West Arm of Glacier! I could feel the excitement in the air!

It’s so thrilling to be a part of this scientific exploration and to learn from these world-class researchers!

 

Mary Cook: Day 3 at Sea, March 21, 2016

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Mary Cook
Onboard R/V Norseman II
March 18-30, 2016

Mission: Deepwater Ecosystems of Glacier Bay National Park
Geographical Area of Cruise: Glacier Bay, Alaska
Date: Monday, March 21, 2016
Time: 7:54pm

Data from the Bridge
Temperature:
45.7°F
Pressure: 1007 millibars
Speed: 1.9 knots
Location: N 58°51.280’: W136°05.795’

Science Log

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My lab work: a tray of Primnoa pacifica samples labeled and preserved for reproductive studies

Today, the coral processing continued for genetic, isotope, and reproductive studies, which has been very intensive for the last two days and nights. During the daylight hours, the divers collected samples of the coral in shallow water (30 meters) and during the nighttime hours ROV Kraken 2 collected the coral samples from the deep (210 meters).

Chief Scientist Rhian Waller tells me that the coral processing work will slow down for a few days because we are leaving the known sampling sites and heading into the unknown. Unknown territory for Primnoa pacifica, that is.

According to Rhian, the most important task today has been the completion of this collection series for Primnoa pacifica (Red Tree Coral). With both shallow and deep samples, geneticist Cheryl Morrison will be able to map the spreading patterns of the Red Tree Coral in Glacier Bay!

There were a total of four exploratory dives today. The divers are having a blast! They wore GoPro cameras on their helmets and used “underwater scooters” to go faster and farther during their dive time constraints. A scooter is a handheld engine with a propeller that pulls a diver behind it. Bob Stone describes it to be like sledding underwater!

In addition to the Red Tree Coral, they’ve brought up some really interesting specimens, which include sea stars, nudibranchs, shrimps-one very pregnant shrimp loaded with eggs, a polychaete worm, a bioluminescent ctenophore, sea pens, and sponges.

On one of the dive outings, they took Qanuk and sat him on an iceberg! It was a really beautiful blue iceberg. Blue icebergs have ice crystals that are more tightly packed therefore they reflect more blue light wavelengths than other colors of wavelengths.

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This evening, scientists are once again gathered around the monitor to see what the ROV Kraken 2 will discover. So far, we’ve seen crabs, goose barnacles feeding on plankton floating in the water, anemones, poacher sturgeon, sea cucumbers and moon snails. Sounds like a yummy salad, doesn’t it?

Personal Log

Today everyone settled into their jobs and it was a smooth operation. The scientists and crew are still brimming with excitement about the possibilities for this voyage. I was glad to get the intensive coral processing completed. Though it’s very important work, it’s tedious and repetitive. One very nice bi-product of working with the coral is the scent. Red Tree Coral smell like cucumbers! Also, we get to see all the other curious types of samples brought aboard such as glowing ctenophores and jumping shrimp! I’m getting to see so many things I’ve never seen before and it’s wonderful to have experts help explain everything. They are genuinely interested in sharing knowledge with me in hopes that I will take it back to the classroom for my students in Scammon Bay. Scammon Bay kids have become important to these world-class scientists! Another cool thing about these scientists, even though they are experts in their fields, they are also eager students for learning something new. Enthusiastic lifelong learners— what an inspiration!

All in all, it’s been a good day in Glacier Bay.

 

Mary Cook: Day 2 at Sea, March 20, 2016

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Mary Cook
Onboard R/V Norseman II
March 18-30, 2016

Mission: Deepwater Ecosystems of Glacier Bay National Park
Geographical Area of Cruise: Glacier Bay, Alaska
Date: Sunday, March 20, 2016
Time: 6:00pm

Data from the Bridge
Temperature:
38°F
Pressure: 1005 millibars
Speed: 0.3 knots
Location: N 59°02.491’ , W136°11.193’
Weather: Sunny with a few clouds

Science Log

Happy First Day of Spring!

Last night the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Kraken2 dove and collected many samples of Primnoa pacifica (Red Tree Coral). The science crew excitedly gathered around the monitor to see what Kraken2 was “seeing”-lots of rocks, a few fish, a few shrimp, a few crabs, a couple of sponges, an octopus and lots of beautiful Red Tree Coral attached to the rock faces.

The ROV Kraken2 is run by a crew of engineers from the University of Connecticut and makes nighttime dives to deeper depths between 130 and 170 meters.

Today we busily processed the coral for genetics, isotopes, and reproduction studies to be conducted later by a series of scientists in various labs scattered across several states.

 

For the genetic samples, polyps (one individual) of coral are smashed onto special paper folders that contain a preservative. For the isotope samples, polyps are put into tiny vials then frozen. For the reproductive samples, an intact piece of coral is placed in a 15-milliliter tube and then submerged into formalin preservative. Later the formalin will be poured out and ethanol will be poured into the tubes. Preparing the reproductive samples is my job!

Three divers went down four different times collecting samples, all near White Thunder Ridge and Riggs Glacier in the eastern arm of Glacier Bay.

Riggs Glacier is showing numerous crevasses, which are usually snow-covered at this time of year. A crevasse is a big crack on the topside of the glacier.

As the evening approached, the ship steamed to the northernmost end of the East Arm where Muir Glacier was waiting to greet us. Muir Glacier is named for Naturalist John Muir who explored in Glacier Bay during the late 1800’s.

Muir Glacier was once a tidewater glacier at the water’s edge but in the last ten years has melted and receded back up into the valley.

The sky was clear and the snow-capped mountains and waterfalls were beautifully reflected in the still waters of the Bay. A gibbous moon rose over the mountain peaks just as the Sun was setting.

Personal Log

Today I learned how to process the samples for genetics, isotopes, and reproduction. My responsibility was to put a small branch of coral into a tube of Formalin. Labeling the tubes with place, depth, and species is important so the scientists as they begin working in the laboratory weeks later will know the source of the coral sample.

The Norseman ll as seen from the RHIB leaving for a dive outing

R/V Norseman II as seen from the RHIB (rigid hull inflatable boat) leaving for a dive outing

As we worked, Chief Scientist Rhian Waller came into the wet lab asking if anyone wanted to ride in the skiff, my heart started beating faster! I didn’t want to be pushy so I kept quiet. Then she said, “Mary would you like to go out on the skiff?” “Yes! I loved to go!” was my reply. I donned the Mustang suit, hardhat, and rubber boots. I grabbed Qanuk and went outside to load into the little RHIB, which had been lowered from the deck on to the water beside the ship’s hull. When everyone was ready, we motored closer to White Thunder Ridge. The diver’s entered the water and explored the region at about 70 feet deep. Meanwhile we waited for them and kept a watch on their bubbles rising to the surface. We used binoculars and viewed five fluffy mountain goats moving along the Ridge! It was cool to see the mountain goats but they were creating a “falling rocks” hazard for those of us down below. Our boat driver decided to move the RHIB away from the Ridge in order to avoid the rocks tumbling down into the water.

Later in the day, when the Norseman II got closer to Muir Glacier, almost everyone was on deck getting that perfect photo of the mountains reflected in the mirror-like waters of Glacier Bay. It was a remarkable scene!

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So at the end a good day, I am feeling very thankful to be a witness to the scientific work in an effort to better understand this pristine wilderness.