Ashley Cosme: Special Situation Lights, September 11, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Ashley Cosme

Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

August 31 – September 14, 2018

Mission: Shark/Red Snapper Longline Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico

Date: September 11, 2018

Weather data from the Bridge:

  • Latitude: 28 40.5N
  • Longitude: 91 08.5W
  • Wind speed: 22 Knots
  • Wind direction: 080 (East)
  • Sky cover: Scattered
  • Visibility: 10 miles
  • Barometric pressure: 1014.5 atm
  • Sea wave height: 3-4 feet
  • Sea Water Temp: 29.9°C
  • Dry Bulb: 25.9°C
  • Wet Blub: 24.6°C

 

Science and Technology:

When NOAA Corps officers go through training they learn a poem to help them remember how to identify Special Situation Lights on other vessels.

Red over green, sailing machine.

Red over white, fishing boat in sight.

Green over white, trawling at night.

White over red, pilot ahead.

Red over red, captain is dead.

mast of the Oregon II

The mast of the Oregon II is identified by the arrow.

When driving a vessel like the Oregon II it is always important to have the ability to analyze the radar, locate other vessels in the water, and determine their current situation by reading their mast lights.  Line 1 of the poem describes a vessel that is currently sailing by use of wind without the use of an engine, line 2 describes a boat engaged in fishing operations, line 3 indicates that the vessel is currently trawling a net behind the boat, line 4 indicates that the vessel is a pilot boat (a boat containing a pilot, who helps guide larger tanker and cargo ships into harbors), and line 5 of the poem is used for a situation when the vessel is not operating properly and other vessels should steer clear.

 

 

 

Personal Log:

blacktip shark

NOAA Scientist, Adam, Pollack, and I measuring and tagging a blacktip shark (Carcharhinus limbatus)

There are currently three named storms in the Atlantic, including a category 4 hurricane (Florence) that is headed towards the Carolinas.  I have never experienced a bad storm while out on the water.  The waves the last 24 hours have ranged from 3-5 feet, with an occasional 8 foot wave.  We have changed our port call location and will now be going back to Pascagoula, Mississippi instead of Galveston, Texas.  There was also no internet for part of the day so my team and I sat in the dry lab and told ghost stories.  I was also introduced to the “dinosaur game” in Google Chrome, which is sort of like a low budget Mario.  Apparently it is the dinosaur’s birthday so he is wearing a birthday hat.

I am still making the most of every minute that I am out here.  Our last haulback was very active with many large blacktip sharks.  It is a workout trying to handle the sharks on deck, while collecting all required data, and getting them back in the water as fast as possible.  I am loving every second!

 

 

Did you know:

Sharks possess dermal denticles (skin teeth) that makes their skin feel rough when running your hand tail to nose.  Shark skin used to be used as sandpaper before it was commercially manufactured.  It can also give you shark burn, which is sort of like a rug burn, if the shark brushes up against you.

 

Animals Seen:

Atlantic Sharpnose Shark (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae)

Blacknose Shark (Carcharhinus acronotus)

Blacktip Shark (Carcharhinus limbatus)

Flying Fish (Exocoetus peruvianus)

Gafftopsail Catfish (Bagre marinus)

Pantropical Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuate)

Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus)

Spinner Shark (Carcharhinus brevipinna)

Tiger Shark (Galeocerdo cuvier)

Meredith Salmon: Who’s Who Aboard the Okeanos: Part IV, July 27, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Meredith Salmon

Aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

July 12 – 31, 2018

Mission: Mapping Deep-Water Areas Southeast of Bermuda in Support of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation

Date: July 27, 2018

Weather Data from the Okeanos Explorer Bridge

Latitude: 28.48°N

Longitude: 62.41°W

Air Temperature: 27.8°C

Wind Speed:  10.5 knots

Conditions: Partly Sunny

Depth: 5272.37 meters

 

LT Rosemary Abbitt

Growing up in Norfolk, Virginia, Rosemary spent much of her childhood around the ocean. She was fascinated by the sea and had a strong desire to learn as much as she could about marine ecosystems. During her high school career, Rosemary participated in a summer travel program at the Forfar Field Station in the Bahamas on Andros Island. This experiential learning opportunity allowed Rosemary to be directly involved with field-studies that focused on scuba diving and exploration. Thanks to that unique experience, Rosemary was hooked on marine science.

After Rosemary graduated high school, she earned her Associates Degree in General Studies of Science at a local community college, then transferred to Coastal Carolina University (CCU) to continue studying marine science. During her undergraduate career, she completed an independent research project in Discovery Bay, Jamaica and focused her studies on coral ecology. After she earned her degree at CCU, Rosemary was interested in becoming a NOAA Corps Officer. Since a few of Rosemary’s family members worked for NOAA, she was exposed to the Corps mission and impact from an early age. She applied and did not gain admittance; however, that did not set Rosemary back.

Rosemary started working as a Physical Scientist intern at the Atlantic Hydrographic Branch in Norfolk, Virginia and sailed aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson for two field seasons. After this experience, she reapplied to the Corps, was accepted, and began her Basic Officer Training Class at Kings Point Merchant Marine Academy in February 2012. Officer training school was an intense program that emphasized leadership, teamwork, seamanship, and navigation. Once Rosemary graduated, her first sea assignment was on the hydrographic research vessel, NOAA Ship Rainier in Alaska. After this assignment, Rosemary’s land assignment was at the Florida Marine Sanctuary in Key West. She worked as a support diver to assess coral health and completed grounding assessments for three and half years before rotating to her current position as the Operations Officer aboard Okeanos Explorer. Now, Rosemary is involved with deep sea exploration and loves being on a ship that is dedicated to discovering more about the unknown parts of the ocean. Rosemary is enthusiastic about supporting NOAA’s mission of science, service, and stewardship. She believes that it is incredibly important to set goals, remain determined, and push yourself out of your comfort zone to experience success.

Rosemary Abbitt

LT Abbitt plotting a fix at the charting table on the bridge of the Okeanos Explorer. Image courtesy of Brianna Pacheco, LTJG (Sel.)/NOAA Corps

Meredith Salmon: Who’s Who Aboard the Okeanos: Part III, July 27, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Meredith Salmon

Aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

July 12 – 31, 2018

Mission: Mapping Deep-Water Areas Southeast of Bermuda in Support of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation

Date: July 27, 2018

Weather Data from the Okeanos Explorer Bridge

Latitude: 28.48°N

Longitude: 62.41°W

Air Temperature: 27.8°C

Wind Speed:  10.5 knots

Conditions: Partly Sunny

Depth: 5272.37 meters

 

Commanding Officer – Commander Eric Johnson, NOAA Corps

Hometown: Maryland but currently resides in D.C

 

Ever since Eric was young, he had been fascinated by the ocean. After reading about Eugenie Clark’s contributions to marine science and shark research, he was hooked on learning as much as he could about the sea. Eric began his studies at St. Mary’s College of Maryland; however, he made the decision to take a six year sabbatical and work in a variety of fields to gain practical experience. During this time, he found employment as an apprentice for a deep sea salvage company and completed electrical work on ROVs for the Navy. This job granted him the opportunity to go to sea and encouraged him to apply what he learned in the field.

 

After this six year period, Eric returned to college at the University of Maryland, majored in Marine Biology, and earned his scuba certification. Upon graduation, he was a manager at REI in College Park and volunteer diver at the National Aquarium in Baltimore. As an exhibit diver, Eric was responsible for feeding the animals by hand in the tanks, maintenance of tanks and scuba equipment, as well as educational outreach.

 

Although Eric learned a great deal about customer service and public speaking during his time at REI and the Baltimore Aquarium, he was interested in researching a more permanent marine science career. While researching potential employment opportunities on the NOAA website, he discovered the NOAA Corps. Eric was very interested in the mission of this Uniformed Service and decided to apply. Eric was not selected the first time since he did not have direct experience working in a related field; however, he was not discouraged. Instead, Eric secured a job working at a Biotech company, reapplied to the NOAA Corps, and was selected. Once he graduated from Basic Officer Training at the Coast Guard Academy, Eric began an extensive and impressive career with NOAA.

 

Eric’s first sea assignment was as navigation officer on the Oregon II.  He was responsible for operations focused on diving, navigation, and safety aboard this vessel. After spending two years at sea, he began his first land rotation as the Executive Officer of the NOAA Dive Program before advancing to the NOAA ship Hi’ialakai. Eric kept track of scientific diving operations aboard the Hi’ialakai, which amounted to approximately 3,000 to 4,000 dives per year! Then, Eric served as the NOAA Recruiter for a year and a half before becoming Chief of the Recruiting Branch. He found the recruiting positions to be incredibly rewarding and enjoyed encouraging those who were looking to make a difference while serving their country to apply to NOAA. Eventually, Eric returned to his original ship, the Oregon II, as Executive Officer before beginning as Commanding Officer on the Okeanos Explorer. Although serving as the Commanding Officer is a major responsibility, Eric is dedicated to supporting NOAA’s mission in regards to science, service, and stewardship. He finds is assignment on the Okeanos very exciting since this ship’s main purpose is ocean exploration.

 

Throughout his career, Eric has learned that it is especially important to pursue your true interests and not be afraid to explore the unknown. Eric believes that stepping outside your comfort zone and learning how to adapt to new situations enables you to construct a skill set that will help you experience success in a variety of situations.

CDR Johnson and wife

CDR Johnson and his wife, Angela, at his Change of Command Ceremony last year

 

Fun Facts about CO Eric Johnson

Eric continues to be an avid diver and has completed over 1,000 dives during his career.

– If you added up all of the hours Eric has spent diving, it would be about one month underwater!

– In Eric’s opinion, the best spot to dive is south of Hawaii at Palmyra Atoll.

Meredith Salmon: Who’s Who Aboard the Okeanos: Part II, July 25, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Meredith Salmon

Aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

July 12 – 31, 2018

Mission: Mapping Deep-Water Areas Southeast of Bermuda in Support of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation

Date: July 25, 2018

Weather Data from the Okeanos Explorer Bridge

Latitude: 28.37°N

Longitude: 63.15°W

Air Temperature: 27.8°C

Wind Speed:  9.7 knots

Conditions: partly sunny

Depth: 5236.01 meters

 

Ensign (ENS) Anna Hallingstad

Hometown: Anacortes, Washington

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) is built on three principles: science, service, and stewardship, and ENS Anna Hallingstad embodies all of these core values. Anna is currently immersed in her first sea assignment aboard the Okeanos Explorer and has many different responsibilities as a NOAA Corps Officer.

Anna has always been fascinated by the outdoors and enrolling in a Marine Science course in high school set her on a science track in college. After graduating high school, Anna completed an undergraduate and graduate career at Stanford University. She majored in Earth Systems and focused particularly on ocean systems. Earth Systems was a unique interdisciplinary major that investigated the interactions of different ecological, geological, and human systems.

Anna extended her learning outside of the traditional classroom environment by completing a quarter of classes at Hopkins Marine Station in Pacific Grove, California. She spent the fall quarter of her junior year studying abroad in Australia in collaboration with the University of Brisbane and Stanford. During the summer before her senior year, Anna participated in a 10-week Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) through the National Science Foundation. Anna continued her studies at Stanford to earn her Masters in Earth Systems and focused on the human relationship with the ocean.

Upon graduation, Anna did an AmeriCorps term by working for an urban forestry non-profit and was a volunteer for Salish Sea Stewards in Washington. Anna also worked as the Harbor Porpoise Project Coordinator before applying and being accepted into NOAA’s Basic Officer Training Class (BOTC). Anna had a desire to work for NOAA since she was young and began her 19-week training in January at the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut. Officer training school was an intense program that emphasized leadership, teamwork, seamanship, navigation, etc. After graduating in May, Anna was shipped off to her first assignment in Honolulu, Hawaii and reported to the Okeanos Explorer in 2017. She will spend two years on the Okeanos Explorer until her three-year land assignment in Washington state.

Anna wears many different hats aboard the Okeanos Explorer as the Morale, Safety, and Property Officer as well as a Purchase Card Holder and Diver. As the Morale Officer, she organizes events on aboard such as ice cream socials, cookouts, and cribbage tournaments. She really enjoys seeing everyone having a great time onboard. It can be very busy balancing all of these important responsibilities, but Anna believes that you shouldn’t shy away from difficult things. Having the confidence to tackle the unknown is a valuable life lesson and one that she abides by while at sea.

 

ENS Anna Hallingstad

ENS Anna Hallingstad

Meredith Salmon: Who’s Who Aboard The Okeanos Part I, July 23, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Meredith Salmon

Aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer

July 12 – 31, 2018

 

Mission: Mapping Deep-Water Areas Southeast of Bermuda in Support of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation

 

Weather Data from the Okeanos Explorer Bridge

Latitude: 28.34°N

Longitude: 64.14°W

Air Temperature: 28.16°C

Wind Speed:  17.34 knots

Conditions: Partly Sunny

Depth: 5060.32 meters

 

Brian Caldwell

Brian has a true passion for exploration and science, so being part of the NOAA Corp is a perfect fit for him. Brian has an extensive educational background and enjoys advancing his knowledge about the ocean. Prior to NOAA, Brian worked as a civilian mariner for a sail training program. He served as both a captain and educator and taught non-traditional education courses about the ocean. In addition, he worked on the NOAA ship Rainier as a wage mariner.

 

Brian began his schooling at Miami Dade College and earned an Associate’s degree in Biology. He then attended Georgetown University and majored in Biology with a minor in Physics. During his time at Georgetown, he was the captain of Georgetown Sailing Team. Upon graduation, Brian continued his schooling and started his graduate degree abroad at the University Of Wales School Of Ocean Sciences.

 

After 9/11, Brian honorably served in the United States Army for ten years. He completed eight combat deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan and even conducted additional graduate work in Military History and a program in Italian Studies. After his commendable involvement with the military, Brian applied and was accepted to the NOAA Corp. Once he graduated from Basic Officer Training at the Coast Guard Academy, he began his career with NOAA. He is now working on the Okeanos and continues to be fascinated with ocean exploration and discovery. Brian loves adventure and travel, so he considers himself very fortunate to be able to experience both while working at sea. Brian has learned that it is important to be flexible in life and never stop learning.

brian interview pic

ENS Brian Caldwell

 

David Knight: Musings from Mission Viejo, July 28, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

David Knight

Aboard NOAA Ship Pisces

July 10-23, 2018

 

Mission: Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey

Geographic Area: Southeastern U.S. coast

Date: July 28, 2018

Weather Data from Mission Viejo, California:

Latitude: 33.64°
Longitude: 117.62°
Sea wave height: 1-2 ft
Wind speed: 4 kts
Wind direction: 90
Visibility: 10 nm
Air temperature: 29.0
°C
Barometric pressure: 758 mm Hg
Sky: Clear

The past few days back home have given me a chance to share my experiences as a NOAA Teacher at Sea with family and friends and to enjoy some slime and scale free days in southern California. I no longer have the picturesque sunrises and sunsets, but I don’t have to climb down a ladder to get out of bed anymore. I am so grateful that I was selected to be a Teacher at Sea this season and that I had an opportunity to learn from and work with some fantastic people.

SEFIS 2018 Leg 2 Track Line

NOAA Ship Pisces route for SEFIS Survey, July 10 – 23, 2018 (image from Jaime Park)

My experience as a NOAA Teacher at Sea greatly exceeded my expectations and has reinvigorated me as a teacher. From the first full day on NOAA Ship Pisces, I was having fun learning about and collecting data that are used to create models of fish populations.  The techniques the NOAA scientists taught me not only allowed me to contribute to their research in a small way, but it gave me an opportunity to collect data that I can immediately integrate into my classroom.  My students will be able to analyze salinity, temperature, and pressure changes as depth changes, as well as biological data such as fish length, weight and age using tissue samples I was able collect while a Teacher at Sea.  Furthermore, I was also able to learn about the men and women that serve as officers in the NOAA Corps, engineers, and deck crew, without whom the scientists would be unable to gather the necessary data. Meeting these dedicated men and women and learning about the mission of NOAA will allow me to help my own students know about career opportunities in marine biology and STEM fields. Every day was an opportunity to learn and I am eager to share my experience and knowledge with my future students as well as my colleagues in Irvine.

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I want to thank Nate Bacheler and the entire NOAA science group for not only teaching me how to extract otoliths and ovaries, but for answering my many questions and including me in everything. Whenever I asked if I could help out in some way I always got a, “Sure, let’s show you how to get that done.” I truly had a blast getting slimed by flopping fish.  I also would not have learned so much about the NOAA Corps and the mission of NOAA without being able to freely go to the bridge and engage with the officers on duty. They too were willing to tell me the story of how the came to be NOAA Corps officers and answered my questions ranging from navigating and the propulsion of NOAA Ship Pisces to college majors and family-life.

IMG_6706

View from a bow hawsehole. (photo by David Knight)

 

 

 

 

David Tourtellot: Draggin’ The Line, July 21st, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

David Tourtellot

Aboard NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson

July 9-26, 2018

Mission:  Hydrographic Survey – Approaches to Houston

Geographic Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico

Date: July 21st, 2018

Weather Data from the Bridge

Latitude: 29° 11.6357’ N

Longitude: 093° 55.9746’W

Visibility: 10+ Nautical Miles

Sky Condition: 6/8

Wind: Direction: 224°    Speed: 8.5 knots

Temperature:

Seawater: 30.4°C

Air: Dry bulb:31.5°C          Wet bulb: 28.5°C

 

Science and Technology Log

In my previous post, I discussed the ship’s sonar. This time, I’ll go into more detail about the tools the Thomas Jefferson is using to complete its mission. The sonar that the ship uses is multi-beam echosounder sonar, which sends the pings down to the seafloor and receives echoes in a fan shape, allowing the ship to survey a wide swath beneath the ship.

Multibeam Sonar

An illustration of a ship using multi-beam sonar. Image courtesy of NOAA

In addition to the multi-beam sonar, NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson utilizes two towfish, or devices that are towed in the water behind the ship.

The first is the side scan sonar. Like the multi-beam, this device uses pings of soundwaves to create images of its surroundings. However unlike the multi-beam, the side scan doesn’t capture any data from the area underneath it. Instead, it collects data to its sides.  The side scan is connected to the ship via a cable, and is dragged through the water 6-15 meters above the seafloor. It is great for measuring the intensity of the return of the ping, which provides insights into the makeup of the seafloor.

The side scan towfish

The side scan towfish

The second towfish that the Thomas Jefferson is using is the MVP (like many things on the ship, MVP is an acronym, for Moving Vessel Profiler). The MVP truly gives the ship some of its most valuable data. As I discussed in my previous blog post, in order for us to accurately calculate the distance that the sonar’s pings are traveling, we need to know the amount of time it takes them to travel, as well as the velocity, or the speed, at which they’re moving. The singarounds I mentioned in my last post measure sound velocity, but only at the face of the sonar. Water conditions are not uniform – at the surface, water tends to be warmer, with less salinity. As you get deeper, however, the water tends to be colder and saltier. This means that the velocity of sound changes the deeper you get. Most of the time, the MVP rides just under the surface of the water, but periodically it will get cast down, to approximately 1 meter above the seafloor. It measures the water conditions of the entire water column from the surface to the seafloor, allowing us to calculate sound velocity all the way down.

MVP

The MVP towfish as it is being lowered into the water

The MVP measures the same water qualities as the CTD (a device I discussed in an earlier blog post), however, the MVP has a distinct advantage over the CTD. In order to use a CTD, the ship has to come to a stop while the CTD is lowered into the water. The MVP, however, can be used while the ship is in motion, which greatly increases productivity.

When surveying, many on the crew say it’s like mowing the lawn. The ship will capture a long stretch of data, called a line, and then turn around, and capture another stretch. 4% of these lines are cross lines, which run perpendicular, across a wide swath of lines of captured data. Cross lines allow the survey department to double check that the data they’ve captured is accurate.

Mowing the Lawn

A display of the lines of survey data the ship has captured. Cross lines can be seen running perpendicular to the majority.

 

Personal Log

TJ Bridge Daylight

The bridge of NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson in the daylight

A couple of days ago, I went up to the bridge shortly after sunset, and I was surprised what I saw. All the lights were off, and the screens of the various instruments had been covered by red filters. I was told that this is for maintaining night vision when on watch. Red light interferes least with our night vision, so anything that gives off light is switched to red.

Bridge at night

The bridge of NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson at night

While on the bridge, I had the opportunity to ask ENS Garrison Grant (who had recently been selected for a promotion to Lieutenant Junior Grade – congratulations Garrison!) a little about the NOAA Corps. I must admit that I was largely unfamiliar with them before joining the Thomas Jefferson.

The NOAA Corps as we know it today began in 1970, though its roots are much older. As president, Thomas Jefferson (for whom NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson is named) created the United States Survey of the Coast, which would later evolve into the United States Coast & Geodetic Survey. Their early operations were not unlike the survey work that NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson is doing today, though their tools were more primitive: surveyors wanting to determine the depths of America’s bodies of water didn’t have the benefit of sonar, and instead used lead lines – lead weights tied to the end of ropes. These surveyors would also play a vital role in our military history. They would often assist artillery, and survey battlefields. This is what led to the United States Coast & Geodetic Survey (and later, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) to gain a commissioned uniformed service. Due to the rules of war, captured uniformed service members could not be tried as spies.

To join the NOAA Corps today, you need to first have a bachelor’s degree. ENS Grant received his degree from Stockton University in Marine Sciences, but he says that it isn’t a requirement that the degree be in a maritime field. He says that some of his classmates had degrees in fields such as English or Communications. After getting a degree, you then apply to join the NOAA Corps (anyone interested should check out this website: https://www.omao.noaa.gov/learn/noaa-corps/join/applying). If selected, you would then complete the Basic Officer Training Class (BOTC), which generally takes about 6 months. After that, you’d be given your first assignment.

 

Did you know? Before NOAA Ship Thomas Jefferson was operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, it belonged to the U.S. Navy and was known as the U.S.N.S. Littlehales