Denise Harrington: Big Sharks Bite, Itty Bitty Sharks Intrigue – May 11, 2016

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Denise Harrington
Aboard NOAA Ship Pisces (In Port)
May 04, 2016 – May 12, 2016

 

Date: Saturday, May 11, 2016

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Dr. Trey Driggers shares a great white shark jaw with me.  Photo courtesy of Kevin Rademacher

My children sometimes complain when they find a bird in the freezer next to their frozen waffles.  Yet in Pascagoula, Mississippi, relentless digging in the freezer is how discoveries are made.

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Mark Grace, in his office.

Mark Grace has been a biologist with NOAA for 30 years.  If he counted all his time at sea, excluding volunteer and international research, he spent “seven solid years floating.” Out of 200 surveys with NOAA, he was the field party chief for 41 of those projects.  In all of those years, he had never discovered a new species, almost no one ever does.   Yet, in 2013, he discovered an extremely rare, tiny species of pocket shark that had been identified only one other time, in 1979 off the coast of Peru.

pocket shark

This photo of the pocket shark shows its remarkable pocket, just behind the pectoral fin, and some skin damage in front of the eye that may have occurred from the pressure of being harvested from the depths.  Credit J. Wicker NOAA/NMFS/SEFSC

Scientists happened to find the 5 ½ inch shark while doing research on sperm whale feeding habits in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010.    The pocket, unnoticed at first, is what makes this shark so unique. Jesse Wicker took this photo in 2010, aboard NOAA Ship Pisces during the whale survey while processing mountains of sea creatures.  Scientists must pay meticulous attention to detail as they document and photograph specimens at sea.  You never know when your photo may prove crucial to scientific discovery.

The Discovery

The specimens collected in 2010 were identified and then placed in freezers to preserve them for further analysis.

freezer of fish

Photo courtesy of Mark Grace

Mark began to work through the specimens, but it took much longer than he had imagined.  He’d undo a bag, and there would be a hundred fish to process. Each bag seemed bottomless.  By the time Mark got to the last bags, the shark had been in the freezer for three years, eight months.  Brrr…..

Yet he knew the fish weren’t worth much if they stayed in the freezer. He was particularly interested in the cookie cutter shark named after the cookie shaped bites they leave in their prey.  He kept on.

cookie bite

NOAA photo The round mark left on the back of this toothed whale is a telltale sign of a cookie cutter shark, such as this one below.

cookie cutter shark

Cookie Cutter Shark, NOAA’s Fisheries Collection, Photo taken aboard NOAA Ship Pisces.

A shark caught his eye. The shark was identified as belonging to the Dalatiidae family (kitefin sharks), many of whom share luminescent features.

pocket shark bottom

Kitefin shark harvested in 2010 aboard Pisces. Credit: J. Wicker NOAA/NMFS/SEFSC 2010

Yet this shark did not look like the other cookie cutter sharks he had studied.  It had a remarkable fold of skin behind the pectoral fin that did not look like an injury or parasite.  Once Mark saw a matching feature behind the other fin, he realized this shark was like no other species he had ever seen.  Looking in his reference books, he could not find this shark, because it did not exist in any book on his shelf.

pocket

Photo credit: Mark Grace – The pockets behind the pectoral fin of the 2010 specimen.

pocket shark diagram

Over hundreds of millions of years, shark adaptations have helped them survive.  They have become smoother, faster, and better at sensing out their prey.  Many sharks have the hard, smooth, scales on their skin called denticles that increase their speed and reduce noise, just like my friend’s fast blue Sterling fiberglass kayak compared to my noisy, orange, plastic Avocet kayak.

Just below the snout, this shark had has a translucent denticle, or scale, at the center of surrounding denticles, giving the appearance of a flower.

pocket shark denticle

Magnified photo of modified denticle.

Mark hypothesized that this unique adaptation might be a pit organ, used to sense currents, or prey.  Scientists have many thoughts about the purposes for this organ.  Each unique feature of the shark inspired Mark to research further.

bioluminescent creatures

Composite of images of bio luminescent species collected with pocket shark by Mark Grace.

One adaption many creatures of deep ocean waters is they glow.  Small photophores, or organs on their body, emit light and signals to communicate with other animals.  In this picture, Mark created a composite of several of the other glowing animals that were pulled up in the trawl net with the pocket shark (middle).

In 30 years, he had never seen a species this rare.  A vitelline scar, like the belly button of a human, indicated that the five and a half inch fish was only a few days to no more than a few weeks old when it was born near the place it was harvested. It was a baby. There had to be at least one other fish like it somewhere in the world.

Connections to others

After a little research, Mark connected this pocket shark with the only other pocket shark ever recorded, in 1979 off the coast of Peru and Chile in the east Pacific Ocean.  His research was particularly challenging because Dolganov, the scientist who first identified the new species pocket shark, wrote up his findings in 1984, in Russian.  Mark had to find a Russian scientist to translate the document to English.

 

Sheiko pocket shark

The only other known pocket shark, harvested in 1974, is not in great condition.  Photo 2013, Boris Sheiko

 

pocket shark with ruler

Look at those unique photophore clusters on the shark’s underside.  Photo credit: J. Wicher NOAA/NMFS/SEFSC, 2010

The older pocket shark was a female, and probably an adult, at 20 inches long. Between the two sharks, there were many similarities, but also many differences.

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In second grade, we like to make Venn Diagrams in situations such as these.  So I drew this one, comparing the shark harvested in 1974 to the shark harvested in 2010.

Once again, I find myself swirling in a sea of questions.  Are these two pocket sharks, which lived far away from each other, of the same species?  Are their morphological (physical) differences enough to make them unable to reproduce with each other?  Scientists ask similar questions to determine if they have found a new species.

What makes a species unique?

Species identification is no easy task.  Mark reached out to experts, as we all do, with his questions.  At the Hollings Marine Laboratory, Gavin Naylor began to collaborate with Mark as part of his global effort to collect DNA of all living things.  He added the pocket shark to the portion of the tree of life he manages at Sharksrays.org.  John Denton, of the American Museum of Natural History, and Michael Doosey and Henry Bart from the Tulane University Biodiversity Research Institute became part of this group of five scientists who would be connected for life through this 5 ½ inch shark. Together they read many books, sliced and diced the shark digitally, and traveled around the world to meet with other biological explorers. They determined that the specimen collected in the Gulf of Mexico, like specimen in the east Pacific, was a pocket shark, Mollisquama.

pocket shark ct

This three dimensional image obtained by Gavin Naylor through a high resolution CT scan at the Hollings Marine Laboratory allows Mark and Gavin to share their research digitally, with scientists around the world, while keeping the baby pocket shark intact.

 

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The American Museum of Natural History in New York used a three dimension printer to obtain a model of the shark from the CT scan.

The most intriguing part of the scientists’ research lies in the title of their work, hidden in Latin: Mollisquama sp., the name for our Gulf of Mexico baby, and Mollisquama parini, its Russian relative. I notice that the second part of their name is different! Yet in order to establish our shark as a new species of Mollisquama, these scientists will have to write a paper that is “strong enough to withstand many layers of peer review,” says Mark. They will need to demonstrate that the physical differences (e.g. teeth and vertebrae) are significant enough to support a new species identification.

If they are successful in proving their pocket shark is different than its eastern Pacific Ocean relative, what should he name this species of shark?  Mark suggests an international competition, as it will take many minds “to be good enough for NOAA.”

Mark reminds us that when we learn about this shark, we realize that the one great interconnected ocean and its inhabitants are a still a place of mystery and discovery.  We have much more to learn about the ocean and its inhabitants than we know.

Personal Log

Often the greatest discoveries come when you least expect them, hiding in expectations dashed, problems, or the path less traveled. While the Pisces was scheduled to depart last week, the crew continues to work on long and short term projects on the ship and in the lab.

me on screen

Photo courtesy of William Osborn

I am being supervised by Engineering Department Chief “Chief” Brent Jones, on one of many cameras around the ship, as I “assist” the engineering crew get through their list of duties.  His words of wisdom? “Hands off!”

Here, Dana Reid, General Vessel Assistant, and I are opening up the aft valve, so that Travis Martin can switch out the strainers in the main water system.  Dirty strainers get hosed out at least every other day.  Today we caught a small eel in the strainer.

righty tighty

Photo Courtesy of William Osborn

 

cleaning the strainer

Travis Martin, TAS Denise Harrington, and Dana Reid are switching out the strainer, while Farron “Junior” Cornell, Fisherman, photo bombs us.

Acronyms abound at NOAA, and teachers are affectionately referred to, not by our names, but as “TAS,” for Teacher at Sea.  I’d like to name a new species of this family of adventuresome NOAA educators, “TIP” for those Teachers in Port who adapt by learning about all the amazing discoveries that take place on land following successful projects at sea.  I want to extend a big thank you to Mark Grace and the fishery biologists in the lab who did not know they’d be hosting a TIP.

While in port, I have been able to explore the various land based habitats which are much easier to study than their underwater counterparts. Standing on the water’s edge at David Bayou, I wondered how the area would look from a kayak.  I posted a message to the Mississippi Kayak Meetup Group. Both Eric and Keigm Richards and their friends responded, sharing their knowledge and boats, showing me parts of the watershed very few people see. Coincidentally, Eric was one of the talented NOAA Ship Pisces builders, and knows everything from the finest detail of an itty bitty kayak skeg, to the gigantic architecture and versatile features of the Pisces.

Here is a slideshow of the one of the most unspoiled, diverse and scenic estuaries I’ve paddled.

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Most of the were taken by Eric.  Notice the changes in vegetation as we travel away from mouth of the Pascagoula River, up the estuary.  The decreasing salinity has a remarkable effect on the flora and fauna of the area.  Mississippians are proud of the Pascagoula, “the last unimpeded river system in the continental United States.” http://ltmcp.org/pascagoula-river-watershed.

DID YOU KNOW?

Most, around 80%, of the creatures in the water column are bio-luminescent, or emit light.  They can vomit out the glowing liquid, hold and release it from a pouch, and/or send it out through photophores (organs like eyes which emit light instead of collecting it).

 

Suzanne Acord: Cetaceans Are Among Us! March 26, 2014

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Suzanne Acord
Aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette
March 17 – 28, 2014

Mission: Kona Area Integrated Ecosystems Assessment Project
Geographical area of cruise: Hawaiian Islands
Date: March 26, 2014

Weather Data from the Bridge at 13:00
Wind: 6 knots
Visibility: 10+ nautical miles
Weather: Hazy
Depth in fathoms: 2,473
Depth in feet: 14,838
Temperature: 26.0˚ Celsius

Science and Technology Log

Cetaceans Are Among Us!

Our Marine Mammal Observation (MMO) crew was in for a treat today. Just after lunch, we spot a pod of sperm whales. We spotted them off the port side, off the starboard side, and eventually off the bow of the Sette. We frequently see Humpback whales in Hawaii, but sperm whales often evade us. Sperm whales can dive down to extreme depths and they feed on squid. These same squid feed on the micronekton that we are observing during the cruise. Sperm whales are the largest of the toothed whales. Their enormous size is obvious when they slap the ocean with their giant tails. Another unique characteristic of the sperm whale is their blow hole, which sits to the left rather than on top of the head. This feature allows our MMO team to easily identify them.

Our MMO lead, Ali Bayless, determines that we should take the small boat out for a closer examination of the pod. Within minutes, the small boat and three scientists are in the water following the pod. We think that a calf (baby) is accompanying two of the adult whales. Throughout the next few hours, our small boat is in constant contact with our flying bridge, bridge, and acoustics team to determine the location of the whales. We keep a safe distance from all of the whales, but especially the calf. While on the small boat, MMO scientists also identify spotted and spinner dolphins. We are essentially surrounded by cetaceans. The small boat is just one of the many tools we use to determine what inhabits the ocean. We also use an EK60 sonar, our Remotely Operated Vehicle, our hydrophone, and sonar buoys.

Our acoustics lead, Adrienne Copeland, is especially excited about our sperm whale sightings. Adrienne is a graduate student in zoology at the University of Hawaii. She earned her Bachelor’s of Science in biology with a minor in math and a certificate in mathematical biology from Washington State University. She has served on the Sette four times and is currently serving her third stint as acoustics lead. This is a testament to her expertise and the respect she has earned within the field.

Adrienne Copeland monitors our acoustics station during our 2014 IEA cruise.

Adrienne Copeland monitors our acoustics station during our 2014 IEA cruise.

Adrienne Copeland studies the foraging behavior of deep diving odontocetes (toothed whales). She shares that some deep diving odontocetes have been known to dive more than 1000 meters. Short finned pilot whales have been observed diving 600-800 meters during the day. During night dives we know they forage at shallower depths on squid and fish. How do we know how deep these mammals dive? Tags placed on these mammals send depth data to scientists. How do we know what marine mammals eat? Scientists are able to examine the stomach contents of mammals who are stranded. Interestingly, scientists know that sperm whales feed on histioteuthis (a type of squid) in the Gulf of Mexico. A 2014 IEA trawl operation brought in one of these squid, which the sperm whales may be targeting for food.

Notice the distinct blue and gray lines toward the top of the screen. These are the think layers of micronekton that migrated up at sunset. The number at the top of the screen expresses the depth to the sea floor.

Notice the distinct blue and gray lines toward the top of the screen. These are the thick layers of micronekton that migrated up at sunset. The number at the top of the screen expresses the depth to the sea floor.

Examine the acoustics screen to the left. Can you identify the gray and blue lines toward the top of the screen? These scattering layers of micronekton ascend and descend depending on the sun. Adrienne is interested in learning how these scattering layers change during whale foraging. Our EK60, Remotely Operated Vehicle, and highly prescribed trawling all allow us to gain a better understanding of the contents of the scattering layers. A greater understanding of whale and micronekton behavior has the potential to lead to more effective conservation practices. All marine mammals are currently protected under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Sperm Whales are protected under the Endangered Species Act.

Interesting fact from Adrienne: Historical scientists could indeed see the scattering layers on their sonar, but they thought the layers were the ocean floor. Now we know they represent the layers of micronekton, but old habits die hard, so the science community sometimes refers to them as false bottoms.

Live Feed at 543 Meters! 

The ROV prior to deployment.

The ROV prior to deployment.

Our Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) deployment is a success! We deploy the ROV thanks to an effective team of crew members, scientists, and NOAA Corps officers working together. ROV deployment takes place on the port side of the ship. We take our ROV down to approximately 543 meters. We are able to survey with the ROV for a solid five hours. A plethora of team members stop by the eLab to “ooh” and “ahh” over the live feed from the ROV. Excitingly, the ROV is deployed prior to the vertical migration of the micronekton and during the early stages of the ascent. The timing is impeccable because our acoustics team is very curious to know which animals contribute to the thick blue and gray lines on our acoustics screens during the migration. In the ROV live feed, the micronekton are certainly visible. However, because the animals are so small, they almost look like snow falling in front of the ROV camera. Periodically, we can identify squid, larger fish, and jellies.

Did you Know? 

Kevin Lewand of the Monterey Bay Aquarium constructs a hyperbaric chamber for marine life on board the Sette.

Kevin Lewand of the Monterey Bay Aquarium constructs a hyperbaric chamber for marine life.

Mini hyperbaric chambers can be used to save fish who are brought to the surface from deep depths. These chambers are often used to assist humans who scuba dive at depths too deep for humans or who do not effectively depressurize when returning to the surface after SCUBA diving. The pressure of the deep water can be life threatening for humans. Too much pressure or too little pressure in the water can be life threatening for marine life, too. Marine life collector, Kevin Lewand, constructed a marine life hyperbaric chamber aboard the Sette. He learned this skill from his mentor. Be sure to say Aloha to him when you visit the Monterey Bay Aquarium in Monterey, California.

 

 

 

 

Personal Log

Daily Life Aboard the Sette

There is never a dull moment on the ship. Tonight we have ROV operations, squid jigging, acoustics monitoring, and a CTD deployment. We of course can’t forget the fact that our bridge officers are constantly ensuring we are en route to our next location. Tonight’s science operations will most likely end around 05:00 (tomorrow). Crew members work 24/7 and are usually willing to share their expertise or a good story. If they are busy completing a task, they always offer to chat at another time. I find that the more I learn about the Sette, the more I yearn to know. The end of the cruise is just two days away. I am surprised by how quickly my time aboard the ship has passed. I look forward to sharing my new knowledge and amazing experiences with my students and colleagues. I have a strong feeling that my students will want to ask as many questions as I have asked the Sette crew. Aloha and mahalo to the Sette.

 

Suzanne Acord: Round the Clock Fun (and Learning) at Sea, March 21, 2014

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Suzanne Acord
Aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette
March 17 – 28, 2014

Mission: Kona Area Integrated Ecosystems Assessment Project
Geographical area of cruise: Hawaiian Islands
Date: March 21, 2014

Weather Data from the Bridge at 14:00
Wind: 6 knots
Visibility: 10 nautical miles
Weather: Hazy
Depth in fathoms: 2,275
Depth in feet: 13,650
Temperature: 25.1˚ Celsius

Science and Technology Log

The Bridge

Learning how to use the dividers for navigational purposes

Learning how to use the dividers for navigational purposes

The Sette crew frequently encourages me to explore the many operations that take place around the clock on the ship. I continue to meet new people who complete countless tasks that allow the Sette to operate smoothly and safely.

XO Haner explains how the radar functions

XO Haner explains how the radar functions on the bridge

NOAA Corps officers operate the bridge. The bridge is the central command station for the ship. NOAA Corps officers consistently ensure that everyone and everything on board is safe. Officers alternate shifts to monitor all radios and radar twenty-four hours a day.

They use numerous instruments to determine the ship’s location. A magnetic compass, maps, dividers, triangles, radar, a steering wheel, and visual observation are just a few of the resources used to guarantee we are on course. According to the NOAA Corps officers, the traditional magnetic compass continues to serve as one of the most reliable tools for navigation.

Location and weather data are officially recorded in the deck log on an hourly basis. However, officers are keeping an eye on the radar, compasses, and weather conditions every moment of the day. On top of that, they are monitoring nearby marine life, boats, and potential hazards.

Teamwork: NOAA Corps officers on the bridge

Teamwork: NOAA Corps officers on the bridge

Personal Log

Marine Mammal Observation Off the Kona Coast

Ali Bayless, Our Marine Mammal Observation (MMO) Lead, has thus far organized three MMO trips out on one of the small boats. Dropping a small boat from the Sette is a task that involves excellent and efficient communication among at least a dozen crew members. The small boat is carefully dropped into the water. Boat operators and scientists then climb down a ladder in their hard hats and lifejackets to embark on their day trip. Today, I was fortunate to take part in one of these MMO expeditions. Two scientists, two boat operators, and I ventured away from the Sette for three hours in hopes of spotting and hearing marine mammals. Excitingly, we did indeed spot up to one hundred spotted dolphins and spinner dolphins.

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If you look closely at the photos, you can see round spots on the dolphins. Our MMO lead believes these are cookie cutter shark bite marks. This is an indication that cookie cutter sharks live in this vicinity. Two of our scientists from the Monterey Bay Aquarium are hoping to return to the Monterey Bay Aquarium with live cookie cutter sharks for the aquarium’s educational exhibits. There is a good possibility that we will find these sharks in our trawl lines that will be dropped later this week.

Listening to whales using the hydrophone during small boat operations.

Listening to whales using the hydrophone during small boat operations

Science Party Interview with Jessica Chen

University of Hawaii PhD student, Jessica Chen, is working the night shift in acoustics from 16:00 to 01:00 during this IEA cruise. She displays patience and a high level of knowledge when I stopped by to pester her around 20:00. During our conversation, Jessica stated that she is from Colorado and came to Hawaii for her graduate studies. She will complete her PhD in 2015. She is interested in learning more about marine mammal behavior through acoustic monitoring and analysis.

Jessica points to the line of micronekton during a late night conversation

Jessica points to the line of micronekton during a night shift conversation

This is Jessica’s second IEA cruise. Jessica, Aimee, and Adrienne monitor our acoustic screens 24/7. In the photo above, Jessica points out the slanted line (slanting up) that represents the diel (daily) vertical migration of the micronekton. The micronekton migrate daily from around 400-500 meters up to approximately 100 meters from the surface. Many even migrate all the way to the surface. When the sun goes down, they come up. When the sun comes up, they start their journey back down to their 400-500 meter starting point. Micronekton consist of potentially billions of small organisms including larval fish, crustaceans, and jellyfish. Their behavior is not completely understood at this point, but they may be migrating at these very specific times to avoid predators.

When asked what Jessica’s long term goals are, she shares that she would like to increase personal and public knowledge of the animals in the ocean. This will allow us to better manage the ocean and protect the ocean. It is clear that Jessica truly enjoys her work and studies. She states that she especially appreciates the opportunities to see wildlife such as dolphins and whales.

Did You Know?

Cookie cutter sharks have extremely sharp teeth. Their round bite is quick and leaves a mark that resembles one that could have been made with a cookie cutter. Hence the name, cookie cutter shark.

Jennifer Fry: March 18, 2012, Oscar Elton Sette

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship, Oscar Elton Sette
March 12 – March 26, 2012

Mission: Fisheries Study
Geographical area of cruise: American Samoa
Date: March 18, 2012


This juvenile lobster was found in the Cobb trawl net.

Pictured here is a copepod (right) and a jelly (left) found in the plankton net.

Pictured here is a copepod (right) and a jelly (left) found in the plankton net.

Scientists, like John Denton, often get hungry during late night trawls. Here he is tempted to eat his recent catch. Tafito Aitaoto, American Samoan scientist, looks on.

Scientists, like John Denton, often get hungry during late night trawls. Here he is tempted to eat his recent catch. Tafito Aitaoto, American Samoan scientist, looks on.

The cookie cutter’s mouth can be very destructive. While biting its victim, it rotates its mouth taking a “chunk” of flesh.

cookie cutter shark

While biting their victim, the cookie cutter shark then turns their mouth to take a deeper bite of flesh. This leaves a large gash making it more difficult to heal

Two cookie cutter sharks came up in the Cobb trawl net. The scientists onboard the Sette were very excited to view these rare fish.

The stewards/cooks on the Sette are Clementine Lutali, Jay Egan, and Jeffrey Falini.  They have created the most amazing fare including traditional Samoan dishes.  Clem, the Head Cook, told me that the Sunday meal  in American Samoa is very important and she was right. Families in American Samoa gather in the morning for church, and then meet with the entire extended family for a large mid-day meal, followed by a nap.  This includes everyone; grandparents all the way down to babies.  In the afternoon families might take a walk to the beach for some family time and then have an afternoon tea with home-baked bread.

Our Sunday evening meal aboard the Sette consisted of turkey gravy and dressing, roast beef and au gratin potatoes, and green papaya salad with roasted garlic and peanuts. We finished with a lovely dessert of Puligi Keke, a Samoan coconut cake served with Crème Anglaise.

Some other Samoan dishes we’ve had onboard are:

Savory dishes:

Faálifu:  boiled and cooked in coconut milk and caramelized onions

Faalifu Kalo: taro in coconut milk

Faalifu Fai: green bananas in coconut milk

Faiai Feé: Octopus with coconut milk

Faiai Pilikaki: Can of mackerel with coconut milk

Faiai Eleni: Can of tomato mackerel with coconut milk

Oka: Samoan raw fish, tomatoes, and onions marinated in fresh coconut milk

Mochiko lehi: a Hawaiian method of frying fish (lehi, a type of snapper) Mochiko can be done to chicken too.

Ulu/ breadfruit

Another wonderful way to serve breadfruit is fried with a touch of salt. Yum.

Breadfruit is a starchy staple of the American Samoan diet.

There are many kinds of ulu/ breadfruit  in American Samoa including: máafala, uluvea, puuoo, aveloloa, ulumanua. Breadfruit is used as a starch in the American Samoan diet, including:

  • potato salad substitute,
  • Uluwua: unripe ulu is baked on banana leaves in a traditional Samoan oven, served dipped in coconut milk

Method of cooking:

Much of Samoan cooking is done outside in an oven called an umu.

  • Umu: Samoan Oven.  American Samoans use a traditional outdoor oven. It starts with a roaring fire set in a brick oven.  After the firewood has died down, hot, smooth rocks are layered over the burnt wood.  Cooking continues using the hot rocks as the heat source.
  • Suaia: Fish chowder with fresh coconut milk
  • Kale Faiai: curry with coconut milk

Desserts:

  • Puligi keke: steamed cake with white cream sauce
  • Panikeke: deep fried donut cake
  • kake: Samoan cake
  • Suali: a banana pudding similar to tapioca
  • Paniolo: (Hawaiian cowboy bread) cornbread with pineapple and coconut milk
  • Fáausi Taro: Raw pounded taro shaped into balls like hush puppies.  Sauce: Caramelized sugar and coconut milk.

An American Samoan delicacy, Fáausi Taro is raw pounded taro shaped into balls served with caramelized coconut sauce.

Panipopo:  buns made with fresh coconut milk served with a fruit glaze.

PANI POPO (COCONUT BUNS)
9 cups flour, divided use
3 3/4 teaspoons active dry yeast
3 1/2 cups milk
1/4 cup butter
1/3 cup sugar
2 1/4 teaspoons salt
You’ll need two 8 1/2-inch-by-11-inch baking pans for this recipe.
Set aside 3 cups of flour. Mix 6 cups flour and yeast. Heat milk, butter, sugar and salt until warm and butter is just melting (about 120 degrees). Add this to the flour and yeast mixture. Mix for 30 seconds on low speed; then mix for 3 minutes on high speed.
With wooden spoon, add the rest of the flour; knead for 6 to 8 minutes. Place dough in a large greased bowl; flip once to grease both sides of dough. Cover and let rise in a warm place for 1 hour.

While dough is rising, prepare coconut sauce:
4 cans (14 ounces) coconut cream
2 cups sugar

Mix well in bowl with whisk. Set aside.

Make a fist and punch down middle of dough to collapse dough.
Divide dough into 2 parts; let rest on lightly floured surface for 10 minutes. Roll out into a rectangle about 16 inches by 9 inches. Brush top of dough lightly with coconut sauce.

Roll dough tightly into a long roll. Cut into 9 pieces. Place in baking pan. Repeat with second half of dough. Cover and let rise another 30 minutes. Pour 3 cups of coconut cream over each pan. Bake at 375 degrees for 50 minutes or until golden brown. Makes 18 buns.

This giant salp was caught in the trawl net.

This giant salp was caught in the trawl net.

NOAA Scientists Evan Howell, Ryan Nichols, Tafito Aitaoto, Jamie Barlow all enjoy a great Samoan meal in the galley aboard the Sette

After dinner, we watched fishing off the longline pit.  As fish were caught using long lines, we were treated to an Hawaiian island delicacy by NOAA officer Justin Ellis, Hawaiian Shave Ice: fluffy ice, sweetened condensed milk, assai beans, your choice of syrup (coconut, pineapple, passion fruit), vanilla ice cream.

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The fishing ventures were successful bringing in 2 fish: a rare Sickle Pomfret and an orange fish.

I went to bed early since I would join the small boat operation in the morning.

Small shrimp (too many to count)

The crustaceans are sorted into a tray and then counted, measured volume(ml), and weighted (g).

Student Questions:

Q: Do you eat the fish you catch?

A: Yes, the stewards (cooks) on board prepare the fish that is caught everyday.  The snapper and tuna have been made into many tasty Samoan dishes.

The bite from this cookie cutter shark can be very painful.

Q: Have you seen any sharks?

A:  Yes, the most interesting shark we caught in the net was the cookie cutter shark.  Its bite is very unique.  As it bites its victim it turns its mouth taking a deeper piece of flesh, which makes the healing process slower.

Becky Moylan: Acoustics and Trawling, July 5, 2011

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Becky Moylan
Onboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette
July 1 — 14, 2011


Mission: IEA (Integrated Ecosystem Assessment)
Geographical Area: Kona Region of Hawaii
Captain: Kurt Dreflak
Science Director: Samuel G. Pooley, Ph.D.
Chief Scientist: Evan A. Howell
Date: July 5, 2011

Ship Data

Latitude 1940.29N
Longitude 15602.84W
Speed 5 knots
Course 228.2
Wind Speed 9.5 knots
Wind Dir. 180.30
Surf. Water Temp. 25.5C
Surf. Water Sal. 34.85
Air Temperature 24.8 C
Relative Humidity 76.00 %
Barometric Pres. 1013.73 mb
 Water Depth 791.50 Meters

July 5, 2011

Science and Technology Log

Work is going on 24 hours here on the ship. The crew have different shifts, so nothing ever stops. It may be 3:00 in the morning, and you’ll see people sorting fish, filtering water, or working the acoustics table.


Acoustics Computer Screen

Acoustics Computer Screen

To improve the accuracy of identifying what organisms are seen on the acoustic system, Sette researchers collect samples from the scattering layers at night using a large trawl net towed from the ship.One important part of the research here is using the acoustic system to find where groups of fish and other organisms are located. This is done with a “ping”, or noise, sent down in the ocean. The sound waves bounce back when they find something, letting scientists know where, and sometimes what, is swimming underneath. Computers keep data on all the different sound waves showing patterns of fish movement. They have found that some groups move upward during the nighttime, and then move back down during the day.

Cookie Cutter Shark

Cookie Cutter Shark

Trawl Net

Trawl Net

Every night on the ship, there is at least one trawl. The method of trawling started back in the 1400’s. Some people use these nets to catch large amounts of fish to sell, and that has been an environmental concern. NOAA is using this method as a scientific sampling, or survey, method to try and help the environment. They are trawling in the Epipalagic Zone (mid to shallow) which is around 200 meters deep, depending on the total depth at location and where the acoustics pick up signals.

Scientists want to find out the status of the smaller life in order to try and predict the outcome of the larger life. Only a small amount is caught for sampling. They weigh, sort, count, and study them. The goal is to be aware of what is happening in this area of the ocean. Some of the species they have found are different types of shrimp, squid, Myctopids, small crabs, and jellies. Last night they wound up with two Cookie Cutter Sharks. These results will then be combined with the measured acoustic data in order to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of acoustic monitoring.

Examining a Trawl Catch

Examining a Trawl Catch

Puffer Fish

Puffer Fish

One scientist from New York, Johnathan, is looking for specific species of Myctopids. He studies them under the microscope and records detailed data found. The Myctopids are sometimes called Lantern Fish. This is because they have organs that produce light. The lights are thought to be a way of communicating with other fish and also as a camouflage. As mentioned earlier, some fish rise to shallower waters at night and the Myctopid is one of these. The reason might be to avoid predators, yet also to follow zooplankton which they feed upon.


Personal Log

Abandon Ship Suits

Abandon Ship Suits

Last night some of us went out on deck to watch the Kona fireworks. I didn’t realize how far out we were until I saw how tiny the little ball of colors appeared. You could see three different areas along the coast where they were shooting off fireworks. As a fourth of July treat, the cooks barbecued on deck and made special deserts. I especially liked the sweet potato pie.

This morning I was out at 6am preparing the CTD for deployment. It is getting easier each time. There are many precautions and steps to make sure the procedure is done correctly and safely. We could only drop it to 200 meters today because this area is shallower here. I watched and learned how to control the computer from the inside. Very impressive!

CTD Screens

CTD Screens

I’m wondering when the ship is going to have another “abandon ship drill”. That’s when we all carry our floatation suits to the upstairs deck and put them on, and it is not easy to do. You lay the suit down, sit on it, and put your legs in first. Then you stand up, pull the suit hood on, then lastly the arms. This is because the hands don’t have fingers. It is quite a funny sight.

I found out today that the 3am trawl ended up with only one fish because a Cookie Cutter Shark had eaten a round hole in the net. This is where they get their name. They always bite a round hole. Some have even eaten a hole out of humans!