Alexandra Keenan: Watching for Whales, June 21, 2012

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Alexandra Keenan
Onboard NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow
June 18 – June 29, 2012

Mission: Cetacean Biology
Geographical area of the cruise: Gulf of Maine
Date: June 21, 2012

Weather data from the bridge:
Air temperature: 15.84° C
Wind speed: 7.42 knots
Wind direction: coming from N
Relative Humidity 94.9%

Science and Technology Log:

We departed from Naval Station Newport (NAVSTA) shortly after 2:00 pm on June 18th. During our first three full days at sea, we have been intermittently retrieving marine acoustic recording units (MARUs–more on this later) and recording whale sightings on Georges Bank.

Georges Bank is an elevated area of sea floor extending from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Cape Sable Island in Nova Scotia. This special place is a feeding ground for cetaceans because the topography and position of the bank result in an upwelling of nutrient-rich water which supports a high level of productivity.

Our day begins at 7:30 am when we begin watch sessions.  Every hour and a half, we rotate through three stations. Scientists at two stations use high-power binoculars, dubbed “big eyes,” while a scientist at another station records sightings.

sighting data entry
Peter Duley enters data from a sighting on the fly bridge.
big eyes
Me on the “big eyes” scanning for whales.

The following information is recorded for each sighting:

  • species
  • position of animal relative to the ship
  • distance of animal from ship
  • number of animals in the group
  • calves (if present)
  • animal behavior (porpoising, swimming, breaching, etc.)
  • swim direction

Environmental conditions and ship position data are recorded concurrently. All of this data can then be used together to monitor certain species and to create statistical models of whale populations.

In this area, we expect to see humpback, sei, fin, pilot, and right whales. In order to distinguish species while on watch, we must take into account a few important characteristics:

Spout: The spout is a column of moist air emitted from the whale’s nostril (blowhole) on its back as it exhales. Right whales and humpbacks have short, bushy spouts, while fin and sei whales have tall, columnar spouts. If the wind is strong, it can be hard to distinguish them. Luckily, there are a couple of other ways to identify whales  from a distance.

Dorsal fin: This is the fin on the whale’s back behind the blowhole. Right whales do not have dorsal fins, and humpback whales have a bit of an extra “hump” on their dorsal fin. Fin and sei whales are slightly more tricky to distinguish. The best way to distinguish them is to recognize that the dorsal fin on a sei whale is taller than on a fin whale. There is also a white coloration pattern forward of the dorsal fin on a fin whale called a chevron. Sei whales do not have these. Fin whales also have white markings on their lower jaws, which sei whales do not have.

Fluke: The fluke is the whale’s “tail.” Humpbacks and right whales show their flukes more often than the others when they dive. Right whales have a very smooth black fluke, while humpback whales have more deeply notched flukes that can range in color from all white to all black.

So far on this cruise we have seen: humpback whales, pilot whales, fin whales, sei whales, minke whales, sperm whales, common dolphins, white-sided dolphins, Risso’s dolphins, striped dolphins, bottle-nose dolphins, mola-mola, and a Portuguese man o’ war.

No right whales yet, though tomorrow we plan to cross the Great South Channel in order to retrieve more MARUs, with a possibility of a sighting there. There was also an aerial survey over Georges Basin– the extreme northern edge of George’s Bank– today that reported 12 right whales. We hope to see plenty before the cruise is over, as right whales are the species targeted for biopsy and photo-identification on this mission.

Common Atlantic white sided dolphin
Dozens of common dolphins surrounded the ship on June 19th.
dolphins near ship
Dolphins playing around the ship.
Listening to dolphins
Genevieve Davis records dolphin whistles using the ship’s hydrophone as I listen on headphones.

From the starboard 01 weatherdecks (the decks on the right side of the boat when facing forward), I was able to hear the dolphins whistling to each other as they played around the ship on June 19th. Scientists Denise Risch and Genevieve Davis recorded their acoustics using a hydrophone mounted on the ship’s centerboard.

Personal Log:

Henry B. Bigelow
Galley stores are loaded on to Henry B. Bigelow just before departure.

Seeing the Bigelow from my cab as we drove onto the pier on June 17th was a bit of a shock for me. I didn’t realize quite how huge it was going to be. As I sauntered up the gangway with my backpack, I thought there was no way I could get seasick on a ship this big. My confidence grew as we left port on the 18th and I felt fine. By the end of the next day (our first full day at sea), though, I was looking for a rock to hide under. A stationary rock.

Happily, today felt great. I feel like my normal self again, have gotten into the swing of things aboard, and know my way around the ship. Everyone here has been exceptionally welcoming and nice which made the seasickness easy to forget. Tonight the ship had a summer solstice party on the flybridge. The weather was absolutely beautiful– complete with an orange sunset and glassy seas.

survival suit
Me in my survival suit during an abandon ship drill.

Overall, things are going great here. The ship is  comfortable, the food is delicious, and the whale sightings have been absolutely incredible. I could get used to this.

The video below is a short tour of my stateroom.

Happy sailing!

Elizabeth Eubanks, July 25, 2007

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Elizabeth Eubanks
Onboard NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan
July 22 – August 3, 2007

Mission: Relative Shark Abundance Survey and J vs. Circle Hook Comparison
Geographical Area: Pacific Ocean, West of San Diego
Date: July 25, 2007

Weather Data from the Bridge   
Visibility: 10 miles
Air temperature: 20.4 degrees C
Sea Temperature at 500m: 6.3 degrees C
Sea Temperature at surface: 21.3 degrees C
Wind Direction: 280 W
Wind Speed:  18 kts
Cloud cover: clear – high cumulus
Sea Level Pressure: 1012.5 mb
Sea Wave Height : 2 ft
Swell Wave Height : 2 ft

NOAA Teacher at Sea Elizabeth Eubanks (right) on the platform taking a DNA sample from a Mako shark.
NOAA Teacher at Sea Elizabeth Eubanks (right) on the platform taking a DNA sample from a Mako shark.

Science and Technology Log 

Today was so exciting. Dr. Suzi Kohin asked me to the join crew down on the platform of the stern of the boat. At the end of the platform is a specially designed cradle in which the shark is placed to record data and issue tags. It was so very, very cool to be that close to sharks. I also got to put two of the tags in the shark.  I first used a scalpel blade to make a small incision just below the dorsal fin. Then I place the tag in with a quick jab. The tag is called a spaghetti tag because it is a thin piece of wire with numbers and contact information on it. You can get a reward for calling it in. The other tag is called a Roto tag and it goes on the dorsal fin. This tag states that we have injected oxytetracycline into the shark. When someone turns this tag in with a couple of vertebrate they get $100.00. Next I am handed a pair of forceps and a scalpel blade, I cut a little junk of the dorsal fin and then hand it over to go into a solution for DNA testing. Then the Suzy calls out the estimated weight and we get the Oxytetracycline and I got to inject it into the shark on the belly or ventral side. Oxytetracycline is pretty cool, it is what teens use for acne. But the really great thing about it is that it also stains your bones when you use it. It shows up similar to how you would see the rings on a stump of a tree. So it is a great way for scientist to do bone growth investigation.

Risso's dolphin
Risso’s dolphin

Personal Log 

Wildlife- Forever I have been tracking all of the birds that I have seen. I don’t particularly keep a count, but I do check them off and write little notes about them in my National Geographic bird book. When I was in wild life biology classes at Penn State Dubois I use to keep track of everything I saw in various books and lists. One huge surprise of this entire summer has been how many new species of birds I have logged. It is amazing. My guess it that I have logged at least 20 new species, which is a lot for me, for one summer. But I really wish I had kept up with my wildlife list as a whole. If I had, I could add a couple species more today. The Common Dolphin (which I actually saw days ago as well), two Blue Whales and a pod of Risso Dolphins – they are beautiful as I am sure you can see from the photo above. Of course now I have an extra challenge with my species list. I like to make sure I get a photo as well – just so that there is no mistake to what I am seeing! If you are into wildlife like I am, I highly recommend you start a list now, it is fun to list where, when and what it was doing when you saw it.

Common dolphin off Catalina Island
Common dolphin off Catalina Island

Question of the Day

If I tell you to lie on your ventral side, which side of your body would you lay on? Suppose I told to lie on your dorsal side, what side would you lay on? 

Question of the trip: Which hook, the J or Circle, will catch more sharks?

Please make a hypothesis. Utilize resources to justify your hypothesis.  ———Yes, you get extra credit for this.