Geographic Area of Cruise: Pacific Ocean from San Diego, CA to San Francisco, CA
Date: March 21, 2017
The Spring Coastal Pelagic Species Survey will be conducted in 2 legs between San Diego and Cape Mendocino, CA. The ship will have a port call in San Francisco, CA between survey legs.
Weather Data from the Bridge
Time 4:38 PDT,
Current Location: near San Clemente Island, Latitude 32.9 N Longitude -118.96 W
Air Temperature 15.3 oC (59.5 oF)
Water Temperature 14.8 oC (58.6 oF)
Wind Speed 13 kts
Barometric pressure 1021.15 hPa
Science and Technology Log
The ship trawls for schooling coastal pelagic fish from sundown to sunrise. This is because, under the protection of darkness, the zooplankton come up toward the surface to feed on phytoplankton and the planktivorous fish, in turn, follow the zooplankton. Before the trawl net can be deployed, you have to go to the bridge, or the upper floor on the ship where all navigation and operations occur, to do a marine mammal watch for 30 minutes. A marine mammal watch is a lookout for dolphins or other marine mammals that might be in the vicinity of the ship to avoid catching them in the trawl. It is difficult to see any dolphins or sea lions in the inky blackness of the night ocean, but this is important to prevent incidental catch. My first time up to the bridge at night was a surprise. Walking up the lit stairs, you open the door to the bridge and the whole area is in darkness with just faint red lights so you can see. After a while your eyes adjust and you make you way to the port or starboard sides of the bridge to start the watch. After you determine that the coast is clear, it is time for the deck crew to start deploying the net. There is big overhead rigging with winches to help lift the net, ropes, chains, and buoys up to lower them down into the water. We drag the net behind the boat for 45 minutes and then haul it in, hopefully full of fish! When the fish are on the boat there is an elaborate process to gather information about the catch.
Catch of the Day
Today is the first day at sea and everyone is busy setting up their labs and calibrating their equipment. The goal of the research is to survey the distributions and abundances of the coastal pelagic fish stocks, their prey, and their biotic and abiotic environment in the California Current Ecosystem. The Reuben Lasker is a state of the art research vessel with many specialized research laboratories.
Coronado Bridge out my window. My State Room
Coronado Bridge out my window
My state room
I’m getting used to the 24 hour nature of the expedition. Everyone is assigned a 12 hour shift and I’m working 12 pm to 12 am. During the day I am currently observing the methods and trying to assist where I can. At night there are multiple trawls. 2 to 5 trawl are planned each night. We caught a variety of different organisms, which are weighted, measured for length, and some saved for further studies such as genetic analysis.
Today I woke up to rough seas with waves about 8 feet, which made it very difficult to get moving! As I moved around the ship everyone smiled because we know how each other are feeling. The seas calmed later in the day and everyone felt much better. Looking forward to doing our trawl tonight!
Did You Know?
The King of the Salmon got their name from the Makah people who believed the fish lead salmon to their spawning rivers.
The Argonaut looks like a nautilus, but they are really an octopus in which the female creates an egg case that wraps around the body.
NOAA Teacher at Sea Kainoa Higgins Aboard R/V Ocean Starr June 18 – July 3, 2014
Mission: Juvenile Rockfish Survey Geographical Area of Cruise: Northern California Current Date: Saturday, June 28, 2014
Weather Data from the Bridge: Current Latitude: 45° 59.5’ N Current Longitude: 125° 02.1’ W Air Temperature: 12.7° Celsius Wind Speed: 15 knots Wind Direction: WSW Surface Water Temperature: 15.5 Celsius Weather conditions: Partly cloudy
Neuston Net and Manta Tow Today, the weather is pleasant but the sea seems more than restless. The show must go on! I step onto the open deck behind the wet lab just as Dr. Curtis Roegner, a fisheries biologist with NOAA, is placing a GoPro onto the end of an extensive net system.
While Curtis specializes in the biological aspects of oceanography, he is especially interested in the synthesis of the ocean system and how bio aspects relate to other physical and chemical parameters. He joins this cruise on the Ocean Starr as he continues a long-term study of distribution patterns of larval crabs. The species of focus: Cancer magister, the Dungeness crab; a table favorite throughout the Pacific Northwest.
While I have been known to eat my weight in “Dungies”, I realize that I know very little about their complex life cycle. We begin with “baby crabs”, or crab larvae. Once they hatch from their eggs, they quickly join the planktonic community and spend much of their 3-4 month developmental process adrift – at the mercy of the environmental forces that dictate the movement of the water and therefore, govern the journey of these young crustaceans. It has been generally assumed that all planktonic participants float wherever the waters take them. In that context, it makes sense that we have been finding large numbers of larvae miles offshore during our nighttime trawl sorting. Still, not all are swept out to sea. Every year millions make their way back into the shallows as they take their more familiar, benthic form which eventually grows large enough to find its way to a supermarket near you. The question is: How? How do these tiny critters avoid being carried beyond the point of no return? Is it luck? Or is there something in the evolutionary history of the Dungeness crab that has allowed it to adapt to such trying conditions?
Curtis tells me about recent research that suggests that seeming “passive” plankton may actually have a lot more control of their fate than previously supposed. By maneuvering vertically throughout the column they can quite dynamically affect their dispersal. Behavioral adaptation may trigger vertical migration events that keep them within a particular region, playing the varied movement of the water to their advantage. Curtis believes the answer to what determines Dungie abundance lies with with the Megalops, the final stage of the larva just prior to true “crab-hood”. By the end of this stage they will have made their way out of the planktonic community and into estuaries of the near shore zone.
This continued study is important in predictably marking the success or failure of a year’s class of crab recruitment. That is to say, the more Megalopae that return to a region, the better the promise of a strong catches for the crabbing industry – and a better chance for you and me to harvest a crab or two for our own table!
As Curtis and I discuss his research, he continues preparing his sampling equipment. The instrument looks similar to the plankton nets we use in marine science at SAMI only it’s about ten times longer and its “mouth” is entirely rectangular, unlike the circular nets I am used to using. I’ve heard the terms “manta”, “bongo” and “neuston” being tossed around lab and yet I am unable to discern one from the other. It’s time I got some answers!
Curtis explains that the Megalopae he wants to catch are members of the neuston, the collective term given to the community of organisms that inhabit the most surface layer of the water column. The Neuston net is named simply for its target. It occurs to me that a “plankton net” is a very general term and that they can come in all shapes and sizes. In addition, the mesh of the net can vary drastically in size; the mesh on our nets at school is roughly 80µm, while the mesh of this net is upwards of 300μm (1 µm or micrometre is equivalent to one millionth of a metre).
I’m still confused because I am fairly certain I have heard others refer to the tool by another name. Curtis explains that while any net intended to sample the surface layer of the water column may be referred to as a neuston net, this particular net had a modified body design which deserved a name of its own. The “manta” is a twin winged continuous flow surface tow used to sample the neuston while minimizing the wake disturbance associated with other models. The net does seem to eerily resemble the gaping mouth of a manta ray. These enormous rays glide effortlessly through the water filtering massive volumes of water and ingesting anything substantial found within. On calm days, our metallic imposter mimics such gracefulness. Today however, it rides awkwardly in the chop, jaggedly slicing and funneling the surface layer into its gut. It’s all starting to make sense. Not only is this a plankton net designed to sample plankton, it is also a plankton net designed to sample only the neuston layer of the planktonic community. The modified body sitting on buoyed wings designed to cover a wider yet shallower layer at the top of the water column further specified the instrument; a neuston net towed via manta body design for optimized sampling. Got it.
After the tow is complete, Curtis dumps the cod end of the net into a sieve, showing me an array of critters including more than a dozen Megalopae! Two samples are frozen to ensure analysis back at the Hammond Lab in Astoria. There, Curtis will examine the developmental progress of the Megalopae in relation to the suite of data provided by the CTD at each testing site. This information, along with various other chemical and physical data will be cross-examined in hopes of finding correlation – and perhaps even causation – that make sense of the Dungeness crabs’ biological and developmental process.
Fundamentally, a CTD is an oceanographic instrument intended to provide data on the conductivity, temperature and depth of a given body of water. The CTD is one of the most common and essential tools on board a research ship. Whether it’s Jason exploring benthic communities, Sam hunting jellies, or Curtis collecting crab larvae, all can benefit from the information the CTD kit and its ensemble of auxiliary components can provide about the quality of the water at a given test site. In general, the more information we collect with the CTD the better our ability to map various chemical and physical parameters throughout the ocean. Check out the TAScast below as I give a basic overview of and take a dive with the CTD and its accessories.
Just when I thought I was beginning to get the hang of it…. Hold on, I have to lie down. As I mentioned above, the seas have been a bit rougher and I’ve been going through a phase of not-feeling-so-hot for the first time this trip. It’s odd because we hit some rougher ocean right out of Eureka and it didn’t seem to faze me much. I stopped taking my motion sickness medicine a few days in, and though I’ve picked it back up just in case, I’m not entirely convinced it’s the only contributing factor. I think it has more to do with my transition onto the night shift and all the plankton sorting which requires lots of focus on tiny animals. The night before last was particularly challenging. In the lab, all of the papers, books and anything else not anchored down slid back and forth and my body felt as if it were on a giant swing set and seesaw all at once. In addition, each time I looked out the back door all I could see was water sloshing onto the deck through the very drainage holes through which it was intended to escape. I remember wondering why there were so many rolls of duct tape strapped to the table and why chairs were left on their side when not in use. Well, now I know. Earlier today we made a quick pit stop in Newport, Oregon – home of the Hatfield Marine Science Center as well as NOAA’s Marine Operations Center of the Pacific. In short, this is where NOAA’s Pacific fleet of vessels is housed and the home base to several members of my science team, including Chief Scientist, Ric Brodeur.
I remember the anticipation of seeing the R/V Ocean Starr, a former NOAA vessel, for the first time. Growing up in Hawai’i, I remember these enormous ships making cameo appearances offshore, complete with a satellite dome over the bridge, only imagining the importance of the work done aboard. Now here I was, walking amongst the giants I idolized as a kid – the difference being that my view was up close and personal from behind the guard gate, a member of their team. I’m totally psyched even though I attempt to pretend like I’ve been there before. As much as I could have spent all afternoon admiring, I needed to make the most of our two hour layover in the library uploading blog material. Unfortunately the satellite-based internet is incredibly finicky out at sea. It’s a first world problem and understandably a part of life at sea, I realize, but all the same, I apologize to all those anticipating regular updates. I continue to do the best I can. I can say, however, that the Hatfield Marine Science Center boasts a fantastic library. I look forward to exploring the rest of the facility upon my final return in a little over a week. ‘Till then, BACK TO SEA!
NOAA Teacher at Sea
Stephen Anderson Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman June 28 – July 12, 2007
Mission: Hake Survey Geographic Region: California Date: June 30, 2009
We’re on station south of Monterey Bay and starting our pattern of parallel east and west course up the coast of California. Imagine a block capital “S” , and you get the idea. Using different frequencies on the sonar, Dr. Chu and his colleagues from NOAA/NMFS/NWFSC can detect various types of marine organisms. Here is a picture of what the screen looks like.
Because we didn’t find any hake, we looked at the small fish to see if they had a swim bladder. The swim bladder on a fish is like a balloon that inflates and deflates depending on the depth of the fish. However, when the sound bounces off these swim bladders it may make the fish appear bigger than it actual size. The dissection of these small fish was no fun.
It’s amazing the number of scientific instruments and studies that are being carried out on this ship. In the following picture a marine biologist is taking a salt water sample. He will then filter it to identify the presence of toxic plants (algae) and animals (plankton). These microorganisms not only affect the food chain, but can also be a threat to humans.
Another instrument they use to monitor the ocean is an XBT. This lead weight is attached by a very thin copper wire. In the following picture a scientist is attaching this to a cable that goes to a computer. This is then “launched” or dropped overboard reading temperatures and sending them to the computer as it sinks to the bottom (greater than 760 meters or 2200 feet).
The food has been great. There is only an hour for each meal, and you have to eat fast. But there is always a great menu. I’ll have to try to get to the gym or else I’m going to gain weight.
Everyone has been very cooperative. Being on a ship puts you in tight quarters with everyone. This cooperation and team spirit helps to make everything work very smoothly.
There is an emphasis on safety. You can tell that everyone is highly trained for their job and role. Yesterday we had our fire and abandon ship drills. On the deck we wear life jackets and hard hats. Everyone watches out for everyone else. The level of expertise and professionalism is impressive.
NOAA Teacher at Sea
Stephen Anderson Onboard NOAA Ship Miller Freeman June 28 – July 12, 2009
Mission: Hake Survey Geographic Region: California Date: June 28, 2009
Boarded NOAA ship Miller Freeman, a government research ship of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in San Francisco Harbor, Pier 27, at 1600 hours (4 p.m.). We went through our emergency drills of donning a survival suit and learning how to use an EBD (emergency breathing device).
Beautiful sunny weather. Wind picked up from the west.
We weighed anchor and went past Alcatraz, under the Golden Gate Bridge, and then out into the Pacific Ocean. Once we got past the outer marker we turned south to Monterey Bay.