Julie Karre: A Weekend with the Wind and Wild Sharks, August 2-4, 2013

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Julie Karre
Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II
July 26 – August 8, 2013

Mission: Shark and Red snapper Longline Survey
Geographical Area of Cruise: Atlantic Ocean off the Coast of Florida
Date: Friday, August 2 – Sunday, August 4, 2013

Weather Data from the Bridge
Friday – SW WINDS 10 TO 15 KNOTS
SEAS 3 TO 5 FEET
SCATTERED SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS

Saturday – SW WINDS AROUND 15 KNOTS
ISOLATED SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS MAINLY AFTER MIDNIGHT
SEAS AROUND 4 FEET

Sunday – W WIND 5 TO 7 KNOTS BECOMING VARIABLE AND LESS THAN 5 KNOTS
A CHANCE OF SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS MAINLY AFTER 10PM
SEAS AROUND 3 FEET

Science and Technology Log
In this log we’ll take a closer look at the sharks we’ve brought on board:

Atlantic Sharpnose Shark:

Volunteer Arjen Krigsman works on a Sharpnose on his birthday!

Volunteer Arjen Krijgsman works on a Sharpnose on his birthday!

The Atlantic Sharpnose has been the most abundant shark on our survey and will continue to be abundant for the rest of the cruise, even in the Gulf of Mexico. It is in fact one of the species that is on the Least Concern list in terms of its vulnerability. It is often a victim of by-catch and makes up 1/3 of the commercial landings of sharks in the United States. But being capable of producing offspring in abundance, the Sharpnose remains a steady species with moderate population growths. As indicated by its name the Atlantic Sharpnose is found all along the U.S. Atlantic coast and even as far as New Brunswick, Canada. When the Oregon II makes its way back into the Gulf of Mexico, it will likely continue to make an appearance on deck.

Blacknose Shark

Blacknose Shark Photo Credit: Claudia Friess from her 2009 Longline cruise on the Oregon II. Unfortunately, when we caught the Blacknose it was too dark to get a good picture.

Blacknose Shark
Photo Credit: Claudia Friess from her 2009 Longline cruise on the Oregon II.  When we caught a Blacknose on this cruise it was too dark to get a good picture.

The Blacknose Shark shares a similar body with the Sharpnose, but is marked by a (drumroll please) black mark on its nose. Unfortunately, the Blacknose doesn’t share its abundance with the Sharpnose. The Blacknose is listed as Near Threatened due to its high mortality rates in shrimp trawl nets. The Blacknose is suffering a decline in its population. The Oregon II has only seen 5-6 Blacknose during this leg of the survey.

Nurse Shark

Nurse Shark Photo Credit: Claudia Friess from her 2009 Oregon II cruise. Unfortunately, it was too dark to get quality photos from our Nurse Shark.

Nurse Shark
Photo Credit: Claudia Friess from her 2009 Oregon II cruise. Again, it was too dark to get quality photos of our Nurse Shark.

The Nurse Shark, the first big shark we cradled, is characterized by sedentary and relatively docile behavior. They are still relatively mysterious in their migratory behavior and the gene flow between populations. Recently, it has been shown in population decline in certain areas perhaps due to its vulnerability to catch, but also perhaps because of habitat alteration.

Scalloped Hammerhead

Measuring a Scalloped Hammerhead.

Measuring a Scalloped Hammerhead.

The Scalloped Hammerhead has been my favorite so far. A friend of mine characterized it as the hipster of the shark world. There is something truly magnificent about those wide-set eyes. Unfortunately, the Scalloped Hammerhead is Endangered. The Scalloped Hammerhead can be found in coastal temperate waters all around the world. In each of these regions, it is threatened by capture, mostly as by-catch in fishing gear, gillnets, and longlines. Hammerhead shark fins are also more valuable than other species because of their high fin count. The species is in decline.

Bull Shark

Bull Shark! 232 pounds!

Bull Shark! 232 pounds!

The Bull Shark is a unique shark species because it can survive in freshwater for extended periods of time. This ability has caused it to be categorized as Near Threatened because it often gets caught in fisheries, but it is not a target species the way others are. Here’s what Kristin Hannan had to say: “Bull sharks’ ability to tolerate greater salinity extremes means that it is likely to be in more productive areas like at the input of rivers.  The rivers which dump high levels of nutrients into the system spur on production, high nutrients means more phytoplankton, more phytoplankton means more small critters eating and so on up.  These areas also mean hot spots for fishing activities as productivity means more fish, more fish means more predators, more interaction with gear, more possibilities for shark mortality.”

Sandbar Shark

A Sandbar Shark coming up on the cradle.

A Sandbar Shark coming up on the cradle.

The Sandbar Shark, which we caught in abundance one night, is a widespread species in warm temperate waters. Studies have found that it is a long-lived species, but it does not reproduce quickly so it has become Vulnerable due to overfishing. The species is currently in decline. The Sandbar is considered valuable because of their fins, which are large.

Tiger Shark 

A medium sized Tiger Shark was brought on deck to be measured and tagged. Kristin Hannan stands waiting for it to stop moving.

A medium sized Tiger Shark was brought on deck to be measured and tagged. Kristin Hannan stands waiting for it to stop moving.

The Tiger Shark is commonly found world wide in tropical and warm coastal waters. Aside from the Sandbar, it is the largest shark we have caught the most of. Fortunately, it is considered a fast-growing species with the ability to reproduce abundantly. It is not considered at a high risk for extinction, but the desire for fins makes the risk of further population decline a distinct possibility.

Night Shark

This Night Shark was the only of its kind we brought up so far.

This Night Shark was the only one of its kind we’ve brought up so far.

We have only caught 1 Night Shark during our survey. It is a Vulnerable species. It is prized mostly for its fins and meats and is caught in abundance off the coast of Brazil. Studies have shown that most of the Night Sharks landed were below 50% maturity, which is 8 years for males and 10 years for females. In the United States, the Night Shark is listed as a prohibited species.

When talking to Kristin about these sharks, she shared this about their reproduction, “All sharks are considered K-selected species like humans; we are late to mature, grow slowly and reproduce relatively few young comparatively to say a bony fish that might produce thousands of babies in its lifetime (s-selected).  So when we talk about a tiger [shark] vs. a sandbar [shark] being more or less productive, it is definitely in relation to each other and not all fish. A tiger [shark] does produce more young than some other species but way less than the red grouper he goes after for dinner.  This is why all sharks are so sensitive to fishing pressures; they have a considerably longer bounce back time.”

Personal Log
It’s hard to believe that over a week has passed, but given how much we have seen and done, it makes sense.

As I get more and more comfortable handling sharks and working on the boat, I have noticed a few things. My sister-in-law Elizabeth noticed a few years ago that my family has a love for responding to each other (and often friends and acquaintances) with movie quotes. The most commonly quoted movies in our family include The Big Lebowski, The Princess Bride, Blues Brothers, To Kill A Mockingbird, and many more. I am no exception to this family trend.

So while we’re all eagerly awaiting the call that a shark is on the hook, it occurred to me that this movie-quoting affliction had not escaped this trip. When a fish or shark is caught on one of our hooks, the fishermen call out “Fish on” to notify those of us handling to come over and retrieve the animal. I realized that this was no common call in my head, though. Each time I hear the “Fish on” I hear it more in the call of “Game Ooon” from Wayne’s World. I suppose that’s a hazard of anyone growing up in the 90s. What proves I am truly a Karre though is that when I’m talking to the shark I’m handling, asking and sometimes begging it to be still so I can remove the hook quickly and reduce its harm and pain, in my head the shark is responding “Oh I’m cooperating with you” in the voice of William H. Macy from the movie Fargo.

"Fish ooonnn" - A Sharpnose comes up to join us.

“Fish ooonnn” – A Sharpnose comes up to join us.

"Oh I'm cooperating with you" says the Sharpnose that has just come aboard the Oregon II.

“Oh I’m cooperating with you” says the Sharpnose that has just come aboard the Oregon II.

Did You Know?
There are over 6000 known coral species around the world. We have brought up several pieces of coral on our clips. Kevin found a bright red piece of coral, which prompted a lesson for us about how many red corals release an irritant that will make our skin burn and sting. Fortunately, that’s not what Kevin brought up!

The sun is setting on my trip and all I can say is that it has been extraordinary.

The sun is setting on my trip and all I can say is that it has been extraordinary.

Julie Karre: Let’s Haul it Back Now, Ya’ll! July 30, 2013

 NOAA Teacher at Sea
Julie Karre
Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II
July 26 – August 8, 2013 

Mission: Shark and Red snapper Longline Survey
Geographical Range of Cruise: Atlantic
Date: Tuesday, July 30, 2013 

Weather Data from the Bridge
SW WINDS 5 TO 10 KNOTS BECOMING SE IN THE AFTERNOON
SEAS 2 TO 3 FEET WITH A DOMINANT PERIOD 14 SECONDS
SLIGHT CHANGE OF SHOWERS AND THUNDERSTORMS

Science and Technology Log

Preparing for a haul back. Everyone wears a PFD (personal flotation device) during a haul and a helmet if the cradle is used.

Preparing for a haul back. Everyone wears a PFD (personal flotation device) during a haul and a helmet if the cradle is used.

What an incredibly fast-paced morning/end of shift for the night shift! As the day shift was getting up and wandering out to check in, the night shift was putting out their first set of the cruise. Day shift, which I’m on, put out two sets the afternoon/night before. Night shift had to skip two last night because of the current. But this haul back made up for it. The crew processed 64 sharks – Sharpnose and Blacknose – at a swift, demanding pace. It was a learning experience to see them handle it so calmly, never missing a beat.

Night shift volunteers Page Vick and Claudia Friess work together to remove a hook.

Night shift volunteers Page Vick and Claudia Friess work together to remove a hook while Ian Davenport records the data.

Night Shift Watch Leader and NOAA scientist Lisa Jones takes a Sharpnose Shark from a fisherman.

Night Shift Watch Leader and NOAA scientist Lisa Jones takes a Sharpnose Shark from a fisherman and removes its hook.

A weighed, measured, sexed shark is released to the ocean.

A weighed, measured, sexed shark is released to the ocean.

At noon it was our turn and by 2pm we were putting out the first of three hauls we would do that day. That first haul brought up 56 sharks in just over an hour’s time. I was recording the data as measurements were taken. We brought up Sharpnose Sharks and Blacknose Sharks. It has been such an eye-opening experience bringing up sharks these last two days because it is so easy to imagine sharks as being enormous and ferocious, which of course some are, but we are bringing up sharks that, for the most part, can be held up with one hand and weigh less than 4.5kg. I think it is important to remember that the images of The Great White and Bull Sharks are not necessarily representative of all sharks. That doesn’t mean that these smaller sharks are not dangerous, it just means they’re not enormous and overwhelming.

Volunteers Holly Perryman and Kevin Travis handle sharks as I record the data.

Volunteers Holly Perryman and Kevin Travis handle sharks as I record the data. Photo Credit: Claudia Friess

We had just enough time to rebait the hooks and hang out for a few minutes before we set out another set 9 miles later. That haul back was light, but did come with a Scalloped Hammerhead. When we get these large sharks (Nurse, Tiger, Hammerhead, Sandbar), it requires a large cradle attached to a crane. The cradle is lowered into the water and the shark is led on with the line attached to the hook. This requires a lot of precise coordination. The person operating the crane cannot see the shark and is then dependent on those at the opening to be clear and loud with directions. Two people hold ropes that stabilize the cradle. They have to stay in sync so that the moving shark doesn’t throw itself over a side, while another person is trying to control the shark with the line attached to the hook. It’s really incredible to watch this team of skilled fishermen and scientists work so quickly with such a large animal. Each large animal is measured, weighed, tagged, and a small tissue sample is taken. Then the cradle is lowered and it swims gracefully away.

It's Hammer time! This Scalloped Hammerhead was very exciting. Photo Credit: Claudia Friess

It’s Hammer time! This Scalloped Hammerhead was very exciting. Photo Credit: Claudia Friess

It's Hammer time! This Scalloped Hammerhead was very exciting. Photo Credit: Claudia Friess

It’s Hammer time! Chief Boatswain Tim Martin keeps a firm grip on the head of the shark. Photo Credit: Claudia Friess

A quick dinner later and then we set out what ended up being our last set around 9:30 pm. At 10:50 pm we began our haul back, which was light on Sharpnose and Blacknose. We got a few and they were small, but the real treat was hauling up 4 Sandbars. Of the 4, we brought up 2 because the other 2 got away. The Sandbar is a really beautiful shark. It has a high first dorsal fin and is one of the largest coastal sharks in the world. According to Chief Scientist Kristin Hannan, the Sandbar’s large fin makes it more desirable by fishermen harvesting fins. Having seen these large, but gorgeous, animals and how gracefully they swim makes me sad that they would be desirable for such an unsustainable practice. Fortunately, in 2008 the National Marine Fisheries Service banned all commercial landings of Sandbar Sharks. The Sandbar is currently listed as a vulnerable species due to overfishing.

Kristin Hannan measuring a Sandbar Shark in the cradle.

Kristin Hannan measuring a Sandbar Shark in the cradle.

This haul back gave me a unique perspective. In previous hauls I’d been over where the fish are measured, weighed, and data recorded. But this time I was racking hooks as they came back, which means that I was just below the window where NOAA Corps Officer ENS Rachel Pryor was driving the ship. This is ENS Pryor’s first longline survey and she said it’s the survey that has the deck and bridge the most connected. Because we’re pulling up animals from a bottom longline, the control of the ship is crucial. The driver must control the ship on station making sure it doesn’t drift over the longline and in those instances of bringing up big sharks on the cradle, he or she keeps us on the station so there isn’t too much tension on the line. Whether it’s ENS Pryor, another NOAA Corps officer, or the Captain, Master Dave Nelson, he or she is just as essential to the survey as the people handling the sharks. Truly a team effort.

The set ended right at a shift change and we were lucky to make that switch on a light haul. Most of the hooks came up empty, including emptying of our bait, so something down there enjoyed an easy free meal.

I took the opportunity to watch the stars for a while before heading to bed. I was not disappointed.

Personal Log

During those first three days of no fishing, much reading was done. I finished a book on Sunday and am waiting to start my other book since I only brought two, but others on the ship have been reading a lot during breaks. At least two people have read the entire Hunger Games Trilogy while on board. It should come as no surprise to my students that this makes me VERY happy. The seventh and eighth graders of Armistead Gardens will be returning to school in August for a Hunger Games semester. The eighth graders read the first book before we left school last year, so we are set to keep reading. The seventh graders begin the Games when we meet in August.

Ladies and Gentlemen, let the 19th Longline Games begin!

Ladies and Gentlemen, let the 19th Annual Longline Games begin! Volunteers Claudia Friess and Mike Hendon devouring the Hunger Games trilogy. Both have started and finished the series since we departed Pascagoula.

BOOK REPORT:

I finished the debut novel by Carrie Mesrobian, which is scheduled to be released this fall. I began reading on Thursday the 25th when I moved onto the ship, but I had to slow myself down because I only have one other book. So I paced it enough to give me a few more days of pleasure. And what a pleasure it is to read such a raw and real book. I read a lot of young adult fiction, mostly for pleasure and sometimes to know what my students are in. I love what young adult literature offers readers in terms of dealing with certain experiences. I have not read many young adult novels written from the male perspective, though. I know there are many, but I have not done a very good job of getting into them. I loved reading Evan. His self-loathing was so real that I was immediately on his side. I thought the sensitive subject matter was handled realistically and appropriately. Well done. Can’t wait to read it again.

An exquisite sunset at the end of a beautiful day.

An exquisite sunset at the end of a beautiful day.

Did You Know?

I learned this from a science teacher at Armistead Gardens Elem/Middle school – there are FOUR meteor showers peaking last night and tonight – Piscis, Austrinids, Aquariids, and Capricornids. Maybe some of my “shooting stars” were from these meteor showers. Thanks Ms. Palmisano for sharing your knowledge!

This is the 19th year of doing the Shark and Red Snapper Longline Survey. That’s a lot of data!

Animals Seen

Sharpnose, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae
blacknose, Carcharhinus acronotus
Sea Nettle, Chrysaora quinquecirrha
Sandbar, Carcharhinus plumbeus
Scalloped hammerhead, Sphyrna lewini

Seastar

Volunteer Kevin Travis with a starfish that came up on a clip. Photo Credit: Claudia Friess

Volunteer Kevin Travis with a starfish that came up on a clip. Photo Credit: Claudia Friess

Jennifer Goldner: Sharks 101, August 18, 2011

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Goldner
Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II
(NOAA Ship Tracker)
August 11 — August 24, 2011

Mission: Shark Longline Survey
Geographical Area: Southern Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico
Date: August 18, 2011

Weather Data from the Bridge
Latitude: 26.05 N
Longitude: 84.05 W
Wind Speed: 5.20 kts
Surface Water Temperature: 30.30 C
Air Temperature: 31.20 C
Relative Humidity: 67.00%

Science and Technology Log

Living in the landlocked state of Oklahoma, I am unfamiliar with sharks.  Thus today, with the help of the scientists, I’m going to give some basics of sharks that I have learned this week.  Class title:  Shark 101.  Welcome to class!

Let me start by telling you the various sharks and amount of each we have caught this week in the Gulf of Mexico. We have caught 7 nurse sharks, 2 bull sharks, 4 sandbar sharks, 73 Atlantic sharpnose sharks, 15 blacknose sharks,  5 blacktip sharks, 5 smooth dogfish, 2 silky sharks, and 4 tiger sharks.  For those of you that took the poll, as you can see the correct answer for the type of shark we have caught the most of is the Atlantic sharpnose shark.   The sharks ranged in size from about 2 kilograms (Atlantic sharpnose shark) to 100 kilograms (tiger shark). Keep in mind a kilogram is 2.24 pounds. 

In addition to the sharks caught we have also caught yellowedge, red, and snowy grouper, blueline tilefish, spinycheek scorpionfish, sea stars, and a barracuda.

From the last post you now know that we soak 100 hooks at a time. Throughout the survey we have had as little as no sharks on the line in one location and up to 25 on the line in other locations.

Me holding a spinycheek scorpion fish

Me holding a spinycheek scorpionfish

Blueline tile fish

Blueline tilefish

Drew, Scientist, holding a barracuda

Drew, Scientist, holding a barracuda

yellowedge grouper

Yellowedge grouper

When a shark is brought on board, it is measured for total length, as well as fork length (where the caudal fin separates into the upper and lower lobes).  The sex of the shark is also recorded.  A male shark has claspers, whereas a female shark does not.  The shark’s weight is recorded.  Then the shark is tagged. Lastly, the shark is injected with OTC (Oxytetracycline) which can then be used to validate the shark’s age.  It should be noted that for larger sharks these measurements are done in the cradle.  For perspective, I had Mike, fisherman, lay in the cradle to show the size of it. Also on this trip, some of the scientists tried out a new laser device.  It shoots a 10 cm beam on the shark.  This is then used as a guide to let them know the total length.  Thus, the shark can actually be measured in the water by using this technique.

Do you see the 2 laser dots on the shark?  This 10 cm increment helps scientists estimate the length of the shark.

Mike, Fisherman, in the shark cradle- It is approximately 8 feet long.

Mike, Fisherman, in the shark cradle — It is approximately 8 feet long.

Shark diagram

Shark diagram

Mark Grace, Chief Scientist, weighs a shark

Mark Grace, Chief Scientist, weighs a shark

Male shark on the left (with claspers), female shark on the right (no claspers)

Male shark on the left (with claspers), female shark on the right (no claspers)

Mark Grace, Chief Scientist, and Adam, Scientist, measure a nurse shark in the cradle

Mark Grace, Chief Scientist, and Adam, Scientist, measure a nurse shark in the cradle

Mark Grace, Chief Scientist, assists me tagging an Atlantic sharpnose shark

Mark Grace, Chief Scientist, assists me tagging an Atlantic sharpnose shark

Tim, Lead Fisherman, holds the bull shark while I tag it!

Tim, Lead Fisherman, holds the bull shark while I tag it!

Giving antibiotics to an Atlantic sharpnose shark

Injecting OTC into an Atlantic sharpnose shark

Here are some things I learned about each of the sharks we caught.

1.  Nurse shark:   The dorsal fins are equal size.  They suck their food in and crush it.  Nurse sharks are very feisty.  See the attached video of Tim, Lead Fisherman and Trey, Scientist, holding a nurse shark while measurements are being taken.

The skin of nurse sharks is rough to touch.  Incidentally, all  types of  sharks’ skin is covered in dermal denticles (modified scales) which is what gives them that rough sandpaper type feeling.  If you rub your hand across the shark one way it will feel smooth, but the opposite way will feel coarse.

Dermal denticles, courtesy of Google images

Dermal denticles, courtesy of Google images

Cliff, Fisherman, getting a nurse shark set to measure

Cliff, Fisherman, getting a nurse shark set to measure

2.  Bull shark– These are one of the most aggressive sharks.  They have a high tolerance for low salinity.

Bianca, Scientist, taking a blood sample from a bull shark

Bianca, Scientist, taking a blood sample from a bull shark

bull shark

Bull shark

sandbar shark

Sandbar shark

3. Sandbar shark– These sharks are the most sought after species in the shark industry due to the large dorsal and pectoral fins.  The fins have large ceratotrichia that are among the most favored in the shark fin market.

4.  Atlantic sharpnose shark– The main identifying characteristic of this shark is white spots.

Atlantic sharpnose shark

Atlantic sharpnose shark

5.  Blacknose shark– Like the name portrays, this shark has black on its nose.  These sharks are called “baby lemons” in commercial fish industry because they can have a yellow hue to them.

blacknose shark

Blacknose shark

Me holding a blacknose shark

Me holding a blacknose shark

6.  Blacktip shark- An interesting fact about this shark is that even though it is named “blacktip,” it does not have a black tip on the anal finThe spinner shark, however, does have a black tip on its anal fin.

Jeff and Cliff getting a blacktip shark on board

Jeff and Cliff getting a blacktip shark on board

Tagging a blacktip shark

Tagging a blacktip shark

7. Smooth dogfish– Their teeth are flat because their diet consists of crustaceans, such as crabs and shrimp.

Travis, Scientist, weighing a smooth dogfish

Travis, Scientist, weighing a smooth dogfish

8. Tiger shark– Their teeth work like a can opener.  They are known for their stripes.

A large tiger shark got tangled in our line.  Notice the 2-3 foot sharpnose shark. The tiger shark is about 5 times larger!

A large tiger shark got tangled in our line. Notice the 2-3 foot sharpnose shark at the left. The tiger shark is about 5 times larger!

Me with a tiger shark

Me with a tiger shark

Daniel, Scientist, holding a tiger shark

Daniel, Scientist, holding a tiger shark

9.  Silky shark- Their skin is very smooth like silk.

Daniel, Scientist, holding a silky shark

Daniel, Scientist, holding a silky shark

Another thing I got to see was shark pups because one of the scientists on board, Bianca Prohaska, is studying the reproductive physiology of sharks, skates, and rays.  According to Bianca, there are 3 general modes of reproduction:

1.  oviparous–  Lays egg cases with a yolk (not live birth).  This includes some sharks and all skates.

2.  aplacental viviparous – Develops internally with only the yolk.  This includes rays and some sharks.  Rays also have a milky substance in addition to the yolk.  Some sharks are also oophagous, such as the salmon shark which is when the female provides unfertilized eggs to her growing pups for extra nutrition.  Other sharks, such as the sand tiger, have interuterine cannibalism (the pups eat each other until only 1 is left).

3. placental viviparous– Develop internally initially with a small amount of yolk, then get a placental attachment.  This includes some sharks.

Yet another thing that scientists look at is the content of the shark’s stomach. They do this to study the diet of the sharks.

Skate egg case, Courtesy of Google images

Example of oviparous- Skate egg case, Courtesy of Google images

Placental viviparous

Example of placental viviparous

Dogfish embryo, courtesy of Google images

Example of aplacental viviparous- Dogfish embryo, courtesy of Google images

Contents from the stomach of a smooth dogfish (flounder and squid)

Contents from the stomach of a smooth dogfish (flounder and squid)

Personal Log

Anyone who knows me realizes that I appreciate good food when I eat it.  Okay, on NOAA Ship Oregon II, I have not found just good food, I have found GREAT cuisine!   I am quite sure I have gained a few pounds, courtesy of our wonderful chefs, Walter and Paul.  They have spoiled us all week with shrimp, steak, prime rib, grilled chicken, homemade cinnamon rolls, turkey, dressing, mashed potatoes, and gravy, and the list goes on!   Just talking about it makes me hungry!

Walter is a Chef de Cuisine.  I want to share with you two of the wonderful things, and there are many more, he has prepared for us this week.  The first is called ceviche.  On our shift we caught some grouper.  Walter used these fish to make this wonderful dish.

Grouper used to make ceviche

Grouper used to make ceviche

In addition to the grouper, the ingredients he used were lemon juice, vinegar, onions, jalapeno, kosher salt, and pepper.  He mixed all the ingredients together.  The citric acid cooks the raw fish.  It has to be fresh fish in order to make it.  Instead of lemon juice, apple juice or orange juice can be substituted.  All I know is that since I arrived on NOAA Ship Oregon II, I heard from the entire crew about how great Walter’s ceviche was and it did not disappoint!

Walter, Chef de Cuisine, with his award winning ceviche

Walter, Chef de Cuisine, with his award winning ceviche

Walter's maccaroons

Walter’s macaroons

Another thing Walter is famous for on board NOAA Ship Oregon II are his macaroons.  These are NOT like ANY macaroons you have ever tasted.  These truly melt in your mouth.  Amazingly, he only has 4 ingredients in them: egg whites, powdered sugar, almond paste, and coconut flakes.  They are divine!!

On another note, I would like to give a shout out to my 5th grade students in Jay Upper Elementary School!  (I actually have not had the chance to meet them yet because I am here as a NOAA Teacher at Sea.  I would like to thank my former student, Samantha Morrison, who is substituting for me.  She is doing an outstanding job!!)

Dolphin swimming alongside the ship

Dolphin swimming alongside the ship

Jay 5th Grade:  I cannot wait to meet you!  Thank you for your questions!  We will have lots of discussions when I return about life at sea.  Several of you asked if I have been seasick.  Fortunately, I have not.  Also, you asked if I got to scuba dive.  Only the dive crew can scuba dive.  We are not allowed to have a swim call (go swimming) either.  As you can see, there is plenty to do on board!  Also, you may have noticed that I tried to include some pictures of me tagging some sharks.  Lastly, this dolphin picture was requested by you, too.  Dolphins LOVE to play in the ship’s wake so we see them every day.

Enjoy the view!

I LOVE the scenery out here!  I thought I’d share some of it with you today.

I thought these clouds looked like dragons. What do they look like to you?

I thought these clouds looked like dragons. What do they look like to you?

The vertical development of clouds out here is amazing!

The vertical development of clouds out here is amazing!

Starboard side at sunset

Starboard side at sunset

Sunset from the stern

Sunset from the stern

Sunset in the Gulf of Mexico aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

Sunset in the Gulf of Mexico aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

Sunset, port side

Sunset, port side

Jennifer Goldner: Shark Week- All day, every day!, August 16, 2011

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Goldner
Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II
(NOAA Ship Tracker)
August 11 — August 24, 2011

Mission: Shark Longline Survey
Geographical Area: Southern Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico
Date: August 16, 2011

Weather Data from the Bridge
Latitude: 25.15 N
Longitude: 82.48 W
Wind Speed: 2.09 kts
Surface Water Temperature: 29.20 C
Air Temperature: 30.10 C
Relative Humidity: 69.00%

Science and Technology Log

If there’s one thing I’ve learned since I’ve been on this trip it is that both science and technology are crucial for doing a shark survey. Keep in mind NOAA Ship Oregon II’s mission is not to fish for sharks, rather it is to survey them. In other words, it is to find out how the sharks are doing and where they like to hang out in the ocean. Thus, the ship doesn’t ONLY go to the “shark hot spots” so to speak. Instead, there are various locations the ship stops at to perform a survey. These are called stations. The stations vary greatly in depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen, etc. It would be similar to marketers taking a survey to see what restaurants people prefer.

With that being said, there is a certain science to performing a survey of the sharks. Here is how it is done. There is much preparation before leaving port to do a survey. NOAA Ship Oregon II cannot leave port without Atlantic mackerel, and lots of it. This is the bait that is used to catch the sharks. The hook of choice is a circle hook. The fishing line is monofilament and extremely strong. These are the basic items needed, but there are numerous other tools needed such as the cradle for larger sharks, tagging tools, vials for samples, and the list goes on. Suffice it to say, once the ship leaves from port, everything has to be on board in order to have a productive survey.

Anyone who fishes knows there are numerous ways to catch a fish. So how do you catch a shark? If you’ve ever seen the movie, “The Perfect Storm,” then you have a good idea. The method used is called longlining. As the name claims, this method makes use of a long line. The line must first be prepared. In order to do this the circle hooks are baited with Atlantic mackerel. There are 100 hooks in total to put on the line. The hooks are part of a unit called a gangion. A gangion consists of a leader, a monofilament line, and a circle hook. These are placed in a barrel. There are 50 gangions with bait per barrel, for a total of 2 barrels per fishing set.

Mark, Chief Scientist, and Adam, Scientist, preparing Atlantic Mackeral for the next station

Mark, Chief Scientist, and Adam, Scientist, preparing Atlantic mackerel for the next station

Preparing the bait

Preparing the bait

Hooks are baited and ready to go!

Hooks are baited and ready to go!

Gangion bucket- Notice when the line is set the bait is given out in a clockwise direction.  When it is hauled back in, it is put in a counterclockwise direction.

Gangion bucket- Notice when the line is set the bait is given out in a clockwise direction. When it is hauled back in, it is put in a counterclockwise direction.

Incidentally, there are 2 shifts: day shift (noon until midnight) and night shift (midnight until noon). I am on the day shift. Thus there are stations being worked 24 hours a day. The bridge will announce when we are coming on another station. Also, it is posted on the dry lab door so we can all be prepared for the next station. Knowing this, the shift gets the mackerel ready by thawing it out, then cutting it up to bait the
hooks.

Once the ship is to the station, everyone gets in their places, and the OOD (Officer of the Deck) disconnects the engine. At this point the drift test begins. This takes into account both the wind and the current to determine what direction to set the line. If there is too much current, determined by the Field Party Chief and the OOD, the station is either canceled or moved closer to shore. Next the ship slowly moves forward (4 knots) and the line is fed from the ship. The line, which is 1 nautical mile, is let out at the stern (back) of the ship. The fishermen are responsible for feeding it through blocks (pulley) system. The 1st thing on the line is a high flyer. This is an orange flotation device put at the end of the line.

High flyer

High flyer

The next thing put on the line is a weight. This sinks the line to the bottom. At this point, the first of 50 baited gangions are handed to the fishermen to clip to the line, each being evenly distributed. It should be noted that each gangion has a hook number so that an accurate record can be kept. The hook numbers are taken off a line and clipped on the gangion as the bait is being fed over the deck to the fisherman. After the 50th gangion, another weight is put on the line, followed by 50 more gangions, another weight, and lastly, a high flyer. While all of this is going on, one person on the team records data on the computer which is instantly uploaded with such things as the latitude and longitude and real time of when each hook is deployed.

Longline Diagram, courtesy of Dr. Trey Driggers

Longline Diagram, courtesy of Dr. Trey Driggers

100 hook number tags

100 hook number tags

Scientists getting the gangion ready to give to Jeff, Chief Boatswain

Scientists getting the gangion ready to give to Jeff, Chief Boatswain

The night shift crew preparing the bait

The night shift crew preparing the bait

Greg, Fisherman, clipping a gangion on the line

Greg, Fisherman, clipping a gangion on the line

Chief Scientist, Mark Grace, records data

Chief Scientist, Mark Grace, records data

The longline is allowed to soak for 1 hour before it is brought back on board on the starboard (right) side of the well-deck, just aft of the bow (front). During this time the deck and buckets are cleaned up and the CTD is deployed (Conductivity Temperature Depth).

The CTD takes many measurements including temperature, salinity, turbidity, chlorophyll, depth, and dissolved oxygen. These measurements give the scientists valuable information for the habitats of the sharks. For example, any level of dissolved oxygen 2.0 mg/liter or lower is considered apoxic and causes physiological stress on an animal. Most animals live in an area between 2-7 mg/liter of dissolved oxygen. A reading of 7 would only be found in very cold water such as the Arctic.

CTD

CTD

CTD Screen

CTD Screen

Water color test

Water color test

In addition to the CTD readings, the scientists report the water color along with the current weather conditions.

After the line has soaked, the team meets at the bow to haul in the line. The fishermen unclip the gangions from the line and hand it off to a scientist who records the hook number and the condition of the bait. If a fish is caught, it is brought aboard and morphometric (total length, fork length, sex, and weight) data is collected.

Travis, Scientist, taking measurements

Travis, Scientist, taking measurements

In the event a larger fish is caught, it is placed in the cradle.What are the benefits of doing a longline survey? It gives the scientists presence/absence data from looking at what was caught and was not caught. It gets samples from the Gulf to compare with other areas.

Personal Log

Mark, Chief Scientist, taking measurements

Mark, Chief Scientist, taking measurements

One word: WOW! Let me say it backwards: WOW!!! This week is DEFINITELY making my “Top Ten Life Experiences” list!! Shark Week has absolutely nothing on this NOAA crew! It is evident they eat, sleep, and live sharks and other fish all year long. NOAA Ship Oregon II needs to have a camera follow them for a reality show called “Shark Year.” If they aren’t catching it, they are studying about it. I am amazed at the depth of knowledge of the entire crew, including each and every member on board, of the ocean. What impresses me even more is their enthusiasm and patience in teaching this teacher how it all works.

Now for your questions. . .

One of you asked about shark finning. According to the scientists and fishermen on board it is not a big problem off the coast of the United States like it is in Asia. Here it is regulated. In fact, when commercial fishermen bring in their sharks, the fins have to be attached, so that cuts down on this practice.

Another question that came up was in regards to tagging. On this ship the scientists mainly use passive tagging techniques. This requires the fish to be recaptured after it has been tagged. The tag has a phone number to call when the shark is caught as well as an identification number. Another method of tagging is active tagging, for instance satellite tags. Satellite tags are attached to animals to study migration. These are very expensive, ranging from $3,000-$5,000. They are set to pop off the animal at a predetermined time and date and transmit data to a satellite in order to plot the shark’s course. Many shark species are migratory so this type of tag is beneficial to see their migration patterns.

Also, a question was asked about how deep it needs to be to safely navigate. According to Cap, the draft for the ship is 15 feet. The ship can safely sail in 30 feet of water. That’s unbelievable for a ship of this size, huh? It makes Orgeon II a great vessel to do the shallow water surveys. Most other ships can’t go that shallow.

By the way, great job class on last blog’s poll! The correct answer was 70! You all aced the quiz!

My son, Hayden on his 1st day of 6th grade

My son, Hayden on his 1st day of 6th grade

I also have to share a picture of my son, Hayden. His 1st day of school was Monday. I can’t believe he is already in 6th grade! Hayden is a shark enthusiast and is following my blog at home with my parents. Cap has already told me he is welcome on the ship. Someday he can come study sharks, just like his Mom!

Shark Gallery Pictures

The next blog will be a lesson on specific sharks, but for now, enjoy the pictures!!

Me with a dogfish shark

Me with a smooth dogfish

Adam, Scientist, getting ready to measure a tiger shark

Adam, Scientist, getting ready to measure a tiger shark

Drew, Scientist, measuring a blacknose shark

Drew, Scientist, measuring a blacknose shark

Me touching a sandbar shark

Me touching a nurse shark