David Murk: Do You Know Your ABCs? May 14, 2014

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Dave Murk
Aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer
May 7 – 22, 2014

Mission: EX 14-03 – Exploration, East Coast Mapping
Geographical Area of Cruise: Off the Coast of Florida and Georgia – Western portion of the Blake Plateau (Stetson Mesa)
Date: May 14, 2014

Weather data from Bridge:

We are sailing south and are at 28.55 degrees  North, 79.44 degrees  West

Wind: 23 knots out of the southeast.
Visibility: 10 miles
Water Depth in feet: 653 feet
Temperature: 27 degrees Celsius  – both sea and air temp. are 80 degrees!

Our location can also be found at:  (http://shiptracker.noaa.gov/).

Science and Technolgy Log:

DO YOU KNOW YOUR ABCs?

Can you understand this sentence?

“During a watch change, the XO checked the AIS then handed control over to the  CO.  When contacted by the mapping room regarding the XBT launch and CTD termination check, the CO said,“Roger that”.  

After reading this- you’ll have a better idea what some of these acronyms mean and how we use them on the Okeanos Explorer. In other words, you’ll be able to say- “roger that” to show you understand and agree.

Let’s start with the XO and CO  –  They are easy and make sense.

CO – The Commanding Officer – He or she is responsible for everything on the ship. (see Personal Log for more information on Commander Ramos of the Okeanos Explorer)

XO – The Executive Officer – Reports to the Commanding Officer and is second in command.

AIS –What is it and why do we need it?

Okeanos Explorer AIS screen

Okeanos Explorer AIS screen

Automatic Identification System.  The Okeanos Explorer has an electronic chart display that includes a symbol for every ship within radio range.  Each ship “symbol” tells Commander Ramos the name of the ship, the actual size of the ship, where that ship is going, how fast it’s going, when or if it will cross our path, and a lot of other information just by “clicking” on a ship symbol!  Here is a link to get more information on AIS.  I also took a picture of the Okeanos Explorer AIS screen and below that there’s the actual picture of our closest neighbor,  the ship named “Joanna”(look closely on the horizon) .  If the CO feels like the ship is going to need to change course, he will inform the scientists in the mapping room right away.  Safety and science RULE!

Explanation of AIS

Our closest neighbor,  the ship named “Joanna”(look closely on the horizon).

Our closest neighbor, the ship named “Joanna”(look closely on the horizon).

XBT- What is it and why do we need one?

Sam Grosenick, mapping intern, launches the XBT.

Sam Grosenick, mapping intern, launches the XBT.

Every two or three hours the mapping team calls the bridge (the driver seat of the ship) and asks permission to launch an XBT – which is short for an eXpendable BathyThermograph.   That’s a heavy weighted probe that is dropped from a ship and allows us to measure the temperature as it falls through the water. WHY do we need to measure the temperature of the water if we are using sonar?  Sound waves travel at different speeds in different temperature water, just like they travel at different speeds in cold air than warm air.  So they need to know the temperature of the water to help calculate how fast the sound or ping that the ship’s sonar sends out so they can map the bottom of the ocean.  A very thin wire sends the temperature data to the ship where the mapping team records it.  There is more information about XBT’s here:

explanation of XBT

NOAA’s network of XBT data

CTD – What is it and why do we need one?

Chief Electronics Technician Richard Conway and Chief Boatswain Tyler Sheff prepare for a dawn launch of the CTD

Chief Electronics Technician Richard Conway and Chief Boatswain Tyler Sheff prepare for a dawn launch of the CTD

Many oceanographic missions use CTD’s.  The Okeanos Explorer is no exception.  CTD stands for conductivity, temperature, and depth, and refers to the electronic instruments that measure these properties. The grey cylinders are water sampling bottles and the big white frame protects everything.   WHY do scientists need CTD’s? Scientists use a CTD to measure the chemistry of the Ocean from surface to bottom.  The CTD can go down to near the bottom and the cylinders close when the scientist on board ship pushes a key on the computer and close so that a water sample is captured at that depth.  It’s a lot easier than swimming down there and opening up a jar and closing it.

WHY do they want to know about conductivity? Why do they care how much electricity can go through the water?   If the water can conduct more electricity, then it has a higher salinity, i.e. more salt.   That helps the scientists know the density of the water at that depth and can help inform them of the biology and ocean currents of that area.

It’s a CTD, not a railing! (picture taken by Kalina Grabb)

It’s a CTD, not a railing! (picture taken by Kalina Grabb)

Close-up of CTD

Close-up of CTD

More info on a CTD from NOAA

CTD vertical cast

 

Personal Log 

Commander Ramos at the helm

Commander Ramos at the helm

As I mentioned in last blog, everyone plays a part on the Okeanos Explorer.  The CO plays a big part in making sure the scientists achieve their goals.  The man in charge- Commander Ricardo Ramos answered a few of my questions last night  in his office in the forward part of the ship.

When I say Oregon Trail, fifth graders usually think of covered wagons.  I doubt that they think of a family of immigrants from Mexico deciding to leave family and friends in sunny Los Angeles and hit the trail north to rainy Oregon. But the devastating riots in Watts in the 1960s caused Commander Ricardo Ramos’s parents to do exactly that. There were some adjustments to be made to life in tiny Klamath Falls, Oregon but his parents, 3 brothers and sister were up to the challenge of no family support and a new community.  The family worked for Weyerhaeuser and Commander Ramos knew he did not want to work in the plant the rest of his life.  It was never IF he’d go to college, but “WHERE”.  He was the second of the five children to attend college, earning 2 Associates degrees and a degree in Electrical Engineering.   After entering NOAA and gaining his masters from Averett University, he spent time on various NOAA ships and in other capacities.  He is also a graduate of Harvard’s Senior Executive Fellows program.

He had a couple words of advice for elementary school students.  First, take advantage of all learning opportunities, for you will never know when you might need the knowledge you will gain.  Second, that communication, both written and oral,  is probably the most important part of his job.  He is not afraid of getting input and editing of his writing for the job.  His greatest reward is realizing that he is charge of a tremendous asset of the United States that provides a platform for scientist to explore our vast oceans.

 

Did You Know? 

My ship – The Okeanos Explorer is about  70 meters - the length of the top of the  arch on the Eiffel Tower!

My ship – The Okeanos Explorer is about 70 meters – the length of the top of the arch on the Eiffel Tower!

Displacement – When you think displacement, you probably think of a quick definition like “moved aside” that we learned when we made aluminum foil boats.  When you get in a kiddie pool, bathtub or any body of water, you move aside water. If you measure the weight or amount of water that you move aside, that is your displacement.  The Okeanos Explorer moves aside a lot of water – more than 2,500 TONS of water.  That’s about 700,000- gallons of water that gets displaced.  The ship is 224 feet long and 43 feet wide in its widest part.  Now, I don’t know about you – but I start thinking about the really big ships and tankers that we see passing by the Okeanos Explorer on the radar (their ‘deets’ are given to us by the AIS system – See the Section on ABC’s for an explanation of AIS) Well, there was a ship called “The Knock Nevis” and it was 1500 feet long!  Did it displace water?  You bet!. 650,000 tons of water when fully loaded! (use a ton of water = gallon converter on google to figure out how many gallons that is). Let’s just say that it’s a lot more than our little MUFFIN – the winner of the Coon Creek Boat Race.

MUFFIN, the boat race “WINNER” and Mr. Murk on the high seas. (picture taken by Sam Grosenick)

MUFFIN, the boat race “WINNER” and Mr. Murk on the high seas.
(picture taken by Sam Grosenick)