Kristin Hennessy-McDonald: That’s Why They Call It Fishing, September 30, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald

Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

September 15 – 30, 2018

Mission: Shark/Red Snapper Longline Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico

Date: September 30, 2018

 

 

Science and Technology Log

The past three days were light catch days.  One day, we only caught a snake fish, which, as you can see, is a pretty tiny little guy.  But, the data from a catch that brings up nothing is just as important as a catch that brings up 50 fish.  As the saying goes, “If we always caught something, we would call it catching, not fishing.”  We have brought up a few Sandbar sharks and Tiger sharks, some of them large enough to have to cradle.  I have gotten to tag a few of the Sandbar sharks, which is still an amazing experience.

Snakefish

Snakefish, our only catch one day

While we did not see many sharks, I had fun seeing the other organisms at the surface.  There have been a lot of moon jellyfish as we have been pulling the line in, and it was clear enough that I was able to get a picture of a few of them as they floated by.  One night, there were flying fish next to the ship, and one of them jumped onto the deck, so I was able to see one up close.  One of the days, a pod of dolphins joined us on a run, and followed the boat for quite a while.  So, while we did not see many sharks, I was able to see some awesome animals throughout the past few days.

Moon Jellyfish

Moon Jellyfish

 

 

 

The last night on the ship, I finished cleaning my shark jaws.  Overnight, they soaked in hydrogen peroxide to whiten them, and today I set them to dry.  I’m looking forward to taking them home and sharing them with all of my students.

 

Drying Shark Jaws

Drying Shark Jaws

 

It was an amazing two weeks.  On Friday night, we set our last line, and it was bittersweet.  Over the past two weeks, I have been able to fish with an amazing group of people.  They allowed me to be a part of the team, and attempt each job setting and pulling in the line.  I was able to put out the high flyer, sling bait, place numbers, clean barrels, and keep data on the computer.  I learned how to tie a double-overhand knot, handle small sharks, tag sharks of all sizes, and had lots of fun doing it.  I’m excited to head back to T-STEM Academy at East High School, but I will always fondly remember my time on the Oregon II.

 

Day Shift Group Photo

Day Shift Group Photo

 

Personal Log

One of the things that the night shift has done a few times is midnight hot dogs.  Chris, the night shift lead fisherman, brings different types of hot dogs on the boat and will cook them at midnight for the shift change.  It gives the night shift members something to eat before breakfast at 7 AM, and gives the day shift something to eat before bed.  They go all out, with a condiment bar and gourmet buns.

 

Did You Know?

Once the Oregon II returns to port from this fourth leg of the Shark/Red Snapper Longline Survey, they will spend a week cleaning and preparing the ship to return to the Gulf of Mexico on a Groundfish Survey that will run from October 8-November 21.  NOAA Groundfish surveys allow for the collection of data on the distribution of flora and fauna within the target region through the use of trawl nets.

 

Quote of the Day

The charm of fishing is that it is the pursuit of what is elusive but attainable, a perpetual series of occasions for hope.
~ John Buchan

 

Question of the Day

Sharks have teeth that are constantly being replaced.  How many teeth will the average shark go through in their lifetime?

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald: Nurse Sharks, Tiger Sharks, and Sandbars, Oh My, September 27, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald

Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

September 15 – 30, 2018

 

Mission: Shark/Red Snapper Longline Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico

Date: September 27, 2018

 

Weather Data from the Bridge

Latitude: 2840.20N

Longitude: 8439.79W

Sea Wave Height: 0m

Wind Speed: 2.2 knots

Wind Direction: 39.04 degrees

Visibility: 10 nautical miles

Air Temperature: 30.045

Sky: 75% cloud cover

 

Science and Technology Log

We have moved from the coast of Texas, past Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, to the coast of Florida.  When watching the video from the CTD, we have seen the sea floors go from mostly mud to sand.  The water has decreased in turbidity, and the growth on the sea floor has increased.  The make-up of our catches has changed too.  We moved outside of the productive waters associated with the Mississippi River discharge, so our catch rates have decreased significantly.

Yesterday, we had a fun day of catching sharks I had never seen.  Our first catch of the day brought up a juvenile Tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier).  I was excited to be able to see this shark, which is listed as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.  On our later catch, we brought up three sharks large enough to require the cradle.  First, we brought up a Sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus).  Then, we were lucky enough to bring up a Nurse Shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum).  The mouth of the nurse shark has barbles, which it uses to feed from the sea floor.  Our final shark of the evening was a much more developed Tiger Shark.  I was lucky enough to help with the tagging of the animal.

juvenile Tiger Shark

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald with a juvenile Tiger Shark

Nurse Shark

Closeup of a Nurse Shark

Nurse Shark release

Nurse Shark release

Last night, we set a line at the end of day shift, and night shift brought it in.  A few of the day shift science team members decided to stay up and watch some of the haul back, and were rewarded with seeing them bring in, not one, but two Silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis), back to back.  From the upper deck of the ship, so that I was not in their way, I was able to observe the night shift work together to bring up these two large animals.

Silky Shark

Night Shift retrieving a Silky Shark

The night shift has gotten some pretty amazing catches, and they have enjoyed sharing them with us at shift change.  The two shifts spend about half an hour together around noon and midnight sharing stories of the time when the other shift was asleep.  The other day, the night shift caught Gulper Sharks (Centrophorus uyato) and Tile Fish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps).  These are two species we have not seen on the day shift, so it was fun to look at their pictures and hear the stories of how they caught these fish.

Gulper Shark

Gulper Shark Photo Credit: Gregg Lawrence

tilefish

Tilefish Photo Credit: Gregg Lawrence

 

Personal Log

When we have a long run between stations, once I have gotten done sending emails and grading student work, we will spend some time watching movies in the lounge.  The ship has a large collection of movies, both classic and recent.  Watching movies keeps us awake during the late night runs, when we have to stay up until midnight to set a line.

The day shift has started to ask one another riddles as we are baiting and setting lines.  It’s a fun way to bond as we are doing our work.  One of my favorites have been: “1=3, 2=3, 3=5, 4=4, 5=4, 6=3, 7=5, 8=5, 9=4, 10=3.  What’s the code?”

Did You Know?

Sharks don’t have the same type of skin that we do.  Sharks have dermal denticles, which are tiny scales, similar to teeth, which are covered with enamel.

Quote of the Day

Teach all men to fish, but first teach all men to be fair. Take less, give more. Give more of yourself, take less from the world. Nobody owes you anything, you owe the world everything.

~Suzy Kassem

Question of the Day

I have a lot of teeth but I’m not a cog
I scare a lot of people but I’m not a spider
I have a fin but I’m not a boat
I’m found in the ocean but I’m not a buoy
I sometimes have a hammerhead but I don’t hit nails

What am I?

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald: Flotsam and Jetsam, September 23, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald

Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

September 15 – 30, 2018

Mission: Shark/Red Snapper Longline Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico

Date: September 23, 2018

 

Weather Data from the Bridge

Latitude: 3006.07N

Longitude: 08741.32W

Sea Wave Height: 1m

Wind Speed: 8.64 knots

Wind Direction: 199.7

Visibility: 7 nautical miles

Air Temperature: 27.6

Sky: 95% cloud cover

 

Science and Technology Log

Over the past few days, we’ve fished a mix of station depths, so I’ve gotten to see a number of new species as we’ve moved out into deeper waters.

At a C station, which is a station at depths between 183 and 366 meters, we caught a Mako Shark (Isurus oxyrinchus).  This catch was so unexpected that a number of crew members ventured out to the well deck to snap a picture.  She was a beautiful juvenile between 1-2 years old.

Kristin and Mako Shark

Our current NOAA Teacher at Sea, Kristin Hennessy-McDonald is all smiles when grabbing this quick picture before releasing the female Mako shark. [Photo Credit: Ensign Chelsea Parrish, NOAA]

juvenile female mako shark

Juvenile Female Mako Shark

I also saw my first kingsnake eel, a long eel with a set of very sharp teeth.  On a later station, we caught a juvenile that we were able to bring on deck and examine.  We also caught a Warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus), which had parasites on its gills and in its fins.  Gregg Lawrence, a member of the night shift on loan from Texas Parks and Wildlife Coastal Fisheries unit, and I removed the otoliths and took samples of the parasites.

Warsaw Grouper

Measuring the Warsaw Grouper [Photo Credit: Gregg Lawrence]

 

image3

Dissecting a Warsaw Grouper

We had one catch that brought in 20 Red Snappers.  Red Snappers are brought on deck, and a number of samples are taken from each one of them for ongoing assessment of the Red Snapper population.  In addition to the otoliths, which allow the scientists to determine the age of the fish, we also take samples of the gonads, the muscle, the fins, and the stomach.  These allow the scientists to perform reproductive and genetic tests and determine what the snappers ate.  While 4 members of the science team onboard collected samples, Caroline Collatos, the volunteer on the day shift, and I insured that the samples were properly packaged and tagged.  Everyone working together allowed the process to run smoothly.

On the latest B station, which was about 110 meters deep, we caught a number of species, some of which I had not gotten to see yet.  In addition to Gulf smoothound sharks (Mustelus sinusmexicanus), we caught a Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) and a Sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) that we had to cradle due to their size.  The Sandbar shark was a bit feisty, but I got the chance to tag her before we released her.

Gulf smoothound shark

Gulf smoothound shark (Mustelus sinusmexicanus)

Scalloped hammerhead

Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini)

Sandbar shark

Sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus)

We work in the rain.  Thankfully, they had some extra rain gear for me to put on, so that I would not get drenched while we were setting the line.  For the most part, the rainstorms have been sprinkles, but we did have one downpour while we were going toward a station.

rain gear

We work in the rain, so I was loaned some rain gear.

 

Personal Log

Between setting lines, I have been busy checking up on my studenats’ work back in Memphis.  One of the great things about having a one-to-one school is that the students are able to do their work on Microsoft Teams and turn it in for me to grade it thousands of miles away.  I have loved seeing their how they are doing, and answering questions while they are working, because I know that they are learning about the cell cycle while I am out at sea learning about sharks.

One of the things that has really surprised me over the past week is how much my hands hurt.  It was unexpected, but it makes sense, given how much of the work requires good grip strength.  From insuring that the sharks are handled properly to clipping numbers on the gangions to removing circle hooks from fish on the lines, much of the work on the science team requires much more thumb strength than I had thought about.  I know my students have commented that their hands hurt after taking notes in my class, so I thought they would get a kick out of the fact that the work on the ship has made my hands hurt.

Did You Know?

Sharks are able to sense electrical fields generated by their prey through a network of sensory organs known as ampullae of Lorenzini.  These special pores are filled with a conductive jelly composed primarily of proteins, which send the signals to nerve fibers at the base of the pore.

Quote of the Day

Remove the predators, and the whole ecosystem begins to crash like a house of cards. As the sharks disappear, the predator prey balance dramatically shifts, and the health of our oceans declines.

~Brian Skerry

Question of the Day

How many bones do sharks have in their bodies?

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald: Apex Predators, September 20, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald

Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

September 15-September 30, 2018

 

Mission: Shark/Red Snapper Longline Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico

Date: September 20, 2018

 

Weather Data from the Bridge

Latitude: 2759.75N

Longitude: 09118.52W

Sea Wave Height: 0m

Wind Speed: 3.72 knots

Wind Direction: 166.48֯

Visibility: 10 nautical miles

Air Temperature: 31.1

Sky: 5% cloud cover

 

Science and Technology Log

We’ve been out at sea for three full days now and have traveled along the Gulf coast from Alabama to Texas.  The Science Team has run mostly shallow longline sets during this time, meaning that we have fished in depths from 9 to 55 meters.  As we move forward, we will fish stations at these depths and stations at depths of 55 to 183 meters, and from 183 to 366 meters.  The locations of the stations are randomized based on depth and the area that is being fished.  Due to the weather that hit south Texas the week before we joined this leg of the survey, we have been fishing the area that was impassable on the last leg of the survey.

As a member of the science team, there are five jobs that need to be done on each side of the set.  When the line is being cast, someone needs to release the highflyer, clip numbers, sling the bait, work the computer, or cleanup.  When the line comes in, there is a data collector, 2 fish handlers, a hook collector, and the computer person.  The highflyer is the marker that is put on either end of the line, so that the line can be seen from the bridge.  The data that is collected on paper and on the computer on each fish includes the number of the hook that they are on, species, length, and gender.  Additionally, some sharks are tagged and a fin clip is taken.

After a line is set, we check the water using a CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) Probe.  It has a GoPro video recorder that takes a video of the water and the sea floor at the site of the line.

IMG_20180917_110752563_HDR

Field Party Chief Kristin Hannan setting up the CTD

 

IMG_20180919_124813824

CTD ready for deployment

A few of the highlights from the catches so far:  We had one catch that was coming up with mostly empty hooks, but then we caught a scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).  The shark was large enough that we used a cradle to pull it up to deck level.  I got to insert the tag right below the dorsal fin.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald tagging a scalloped hammerhead Photo Credit: Caroline Collatos

We had another survey that caught 49 sharks, including Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), Blacknose Sharks (Carcharhinus acronotus), Spinner Sharks (Carcharhinus brevipinna), and Blacktip Sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus).  Between these, we had a number of lines that brought up some sharks and a few Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus).  I have been able to dissect some of the Red Snapper, and collect their otoliths, which are their ear bones.

IMG_20180919_184623530_HDR

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald holding a Red Snapper

In the time between setting and retrieving lines, one of the ways we kept ourselves busy was by cleaning shark jaws that we had collected.  I look forward to using these in my classroom as an example of an apex predator species adaptation.

Personal Log

During much the 12 hours of off time, I spend my time in my bunk.  Working for 12 hours in the hot sun is exhausting, and it’s nice to have the room to myself while I try to get some rest.  Though I share a bunk with another member of the Science Team, we work opposite shifts.  So, while I’m on deck, she’s sleeping, and visa versa.  As you can see, my daughter sent me with her shark doll, which I thought was appropriate, given that I was taking part in shark research on this ship.

IMG_20180917_094650080

Kristin’s bunk on the Oregon II

While we were going slow one day, we had a pod of dolphins who swam along with us for a while.  They were right beside the ship, and I was able to get a video of a few of them surfacing next to us.

Did You Know?

Many shark species, including the Atlantic Sharpnose shark, are viviparous, meaning they give birth to live young.  These sharks form a placenta from the yolk sac while the embryo develops.

Quote of the Day

Without sharks, you take away the apex predator of the ocean, and you destroy the entire food chain

~Peter Benchley

Question of the Day

While it is a common misconception that sharks do not get cancer, sharks have been found to get cancer, including chondromas.  What type of cancer is that?

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald: Engineer for a Day, September 18, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald

Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

September 15 – 30, 2018

 

Mission: Shark/Red Snapper Longline Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico

Date: September 18, 2018

 

Weather Data from the Bridge

Latitude: 2901.62N

Longitude: 0932.87W

Sea Wave Height: 0m

Wind Speed: 6.63 knots

Wind Direction: 203֯

Visibility: 10 nautical miles

Air Temperature: 32.4

Sky: 0% cloud cover

 

Science and Technology Log

My first day onboard was spent following around 2nd Engineer Will Osborn.  Will is an officer in the Merchant Marines, and a NOAA Augmentation Pool Engineer assigned to the Oregon II.  He invited me to follow him around and learn how the engineers prepare the ship for sea.  One of the duties of the engineers is to check the liquid levels of each of the tanks prior to sailing.  They do this by performing soundings, where they use a weighted measuring tape and a conversion chart to determine the number of gallons in each of the tanks.

 

The engineering team then prepared the ship to sail by disconnecting shore power and turning on the engines aboard ship.  I got to flip the switch that disconnects the ship from shore power.  I followed the engineering team as they disconnected the very large cable that the ship uses to draw power from shore.  I then got to follow 2nd Engineer Will as he turned on the engines aboard ship.

turning off the shore power

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald turning off the shore power in the engine room

Once we set sail, the science team met and discussed how longline surveys would work.  I am on the day shift, which is from noon to midnight.  We got the rest of the day, after onboard training and group meetings, to get used to our new sleep schedule.  Because I was on the day shift, I stayed up and got to watch an amazing sunset over the Gulf.

Our second day out, we set our first two longlines.  The first one was set before shift change, so the night shift crew bated the hooks and set the line.  My shift brought the line in, and mostly got back unbaited hooks.  We got a few small Atlantic Sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae) sharks on the line, and used those to go over internal and external features that differentiated the various species we might find.

 

After the lines were in, it was time for safety drills.  These included the abandon ship drill, which required us to put on a submersion suit, which is affectionately referred to as a Gumby suit.  You can see why below.  It was as hard to get into as it looks, but it will keep you warm and afloat if you end up in the water after you abandon ship.

Gumby Suit

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald in the Gumby Suit

 

Personal Log

I have learned a few rules of the boat on my first days at sea.  First, always watch your head.  The stairwells sometimes have short spaces, and you have to make sure not to hit them on your way up.  Second, always keep a hand free for the boat.  It is imperative at sea that you always have a hand free, in case the boat rocks and you need to catch yourself.  Third, mealtimes are sacred.  There are 31 people aboard the boat, with seating for 12 in the galley.  In order for everyone to get a chance to sit down and eat, you can’t socialize in the galley.

Did You Know?

In order for the crew to have freshwater to drink, the Oregon II uses a reverse osmosis machine.  They create 1000-1200 gallons of drinkable water per day, running the ocean water through the reverse osmosis generator at a pressure of 950 psi.

Quote of the Day

And when there are enough outsiders together in one place, a mystic osmosis takes place and you’re inside.

~Stephen King

Question of the Day

How do sharks hear in the water?

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald: Something Incredible, September 16, 2018

NOAA Teacher at Sea

Kristin Hennessy-McDonald

Aboard NOAA Ship Oregon II

September 15 – 30, 2018

 

Mission: Shark/Red Snapper Longline Survey

Geographic Area of Cruise: Gulf of Mexico

Date: September 16, 2018

 

Personal Introduction

Greetings to those following my adventure from afar.  My name is Kristin Hennessy-McDonald, but my students and fellow faculty call me Dr. Hen-Mc.  I am so excited to have been selected to be a member of the NOAA Teacher at Sea Program aboard the Oregon II.  I am the science lead at T-STEM Academy at East High School, where I teach Honors Biology.  My path to the classroom was far from straight.  I attended the University of Notre Dame, where I earned a B.S. in Biology.  I then continued my academic path at the University of Alabama, Birmingham, where I earned my PhD in Cell Physiology.  After spending a little less than 3 years at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, I had an epiphany.  I found that I enjoyed sharing my passion about science more than doing research at the bench.  I made the decision to transition to the classroom and have not looked back.  8 years later, I have found my home at T-STEM, and my family in Team East.

The journey to boarding the Oregon II has been a long one, but well worth it.  When my boss brought the opportunity to me, I applied with hope.  When I got the acceptance letter, I gasped and started jumping up and down in my classroom.  My students were confused, but then excited when they found out that I had gotten this opportunity.  I teach many of the same students who were in that class, and they have all been sharing in my excitement over the past months as I have prepared for this adventure.

I have always been fascinated by water.  From the time I was a small child, my parents would have to watch carefully when we went to the pool or the beach, because I was liable to jump right in.  As I grew up, that love of water has remained, and I spend time each summer on the Gulf.  I am thrilled to have a chance to study ecosystem of the Gulf of Mexico, and see things that I only read about in National Geographic magazine.

Mark and Kristin Gulf

Me and my husband in Gulfport, MS

I have passed my love of water on to my daughter.  Beth is the same way I was when I was young.  She wants to run into the water, to play in the waves.  She sees the beauty of the sea, watching dolphins alongside the boat when we take trips to Ship Island out of Gulfport, MS.  I look forward to sharing my adventures at sea with her.  I am sad to leave her and my husband for two weeks, but grateful that they waved me off on my adventures with a smile.

Beth Gulf

Beth at Ship Island building a sandcastle

I began my career as a teacher because I wanted to share my love of science with young people.  I dreamed of someday being a child’s gateway to the wonders and knowledge of science.  While none of my students have stood on a desk reciting Whitman, some of my students have allowed my love of science to guide them along science career paths.  When I joined Team East at T-STEM Academy at East High School, I knew that I was in a place that would foster the idea of learning by doing.  I wanted to exemplify that going on this trip.  I cannot wait to bring all of the knowledge and experiences of this trip back to my classroom.  Instead of just sharing case studies of Gulf Coast ecosystems, I will be able to share what I learned as a NOAA Teacher at Sea.

 

Personal Quote of the day

“Somewhere, something incredible is waiting to be known.”
~Carl Sagan

 

Did You Know?

Red Snappers are considered to be one of the top predators in the Gulf of Mexico?

 

Question of the day

Given that red snapper hatch at 0.0625 inches long, and can reach sizes of 16 inches within two years, do you think their cells have a long or short G1 phase?