Jennifer Fry: March 19, 2012, Oscar Elton Sette

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship, Oscar Elton Sette
March 12 – March 26, 2012

Mission: Fisheries Study
Geographical area of cruise: American Samoa
Date: March 19, 2012

Here I am processing fish samples.
The small boat dangles beside the NOAA ship Sette before it is deployed into the ocean. Pictured here, skilled fisherman,Mills Dunlap and Teacher at Sea, Jennifer Fry
The small boat SE6 is being deployed.

Small Boat Operations

Today I switched from the night shift to days.  Joining the crew on the small boat operations was a real treat.  The two 10-meter small boats are used for a variety of scientific study such as fishing, plankton tows, researching protected species, cetacean acoustic studies, and A.U.V. autonomous underwater vehicle maneuvers.  Today we will be fishing the ledge of  2% Bank for snapper fish.  When deployed the boats are raised and lowered off the side of the 200-foot Oscar Elton Sette for each fishing excursion. This is no easy feat, taking synchronized orchestration of all hands.

First, everyone involved has a safety briefing to discuss rules, procedure and safety tips, including the ship’s captain, scientists, crew members, and the 2 coxswains , Mills Dunlap and Jamie Barlow, drivers of each boat.

Once all the gear is loaded onto the boat such as fishing gear, the day’s water supply, ice chests filled with ice to keep fish cold, lunches, and personal belongings(sunscreen, hat, and windbreaker), we carefully step into the boat which hangs beside  the ship approx 8 feet above the surface of the ocean. The small orange boat hangs by one strong metal hook connected through a large metal eye which secure four  fabric straps at each corner of the boat. The boat dangles from the side much like a clock’s pendulum ticking each minute of time.

Crew member Doug Roberts, the ship’s boatswain or bosun, is operating the crane today.  The boat is then lowered taking its passengers to the ocean’s surging surface. Keeping our eyes on the large yellow metal hook, our life line to the Sette,  the small orange boat descends.

Once the boat hits the water, it becomes a bobbing cork, undulating with each approaching swell, frequently banging into the hull of the NOAA Ship Sette.

“Boom, Bang, Bash” as the small boat hits the hull of the great hulk.

Quickly pulling the hook out of the eye, the coxswain Mills Dunlap speeds away to find the daily fishing position using the boat’s G.P.S., Global Positioning System.  The scientists hope to catch a nice variety of snapper species and further their study on growth patterns of fish in American Samoa waters.

The small boat is deployed and retrieved in much the same manner, using a large hook and crane to lower and lift the boat in and out of the ocean.
Safety is paramount when deploying and retrieving NOAA small boats. All hands wear a PFD, Personal Floatation Device and a hard hat.

The seas were milder in the morning with swells of 6-8 feet which gradually made way for windier afternoon conditions producing choppy seas and blustery winds.

I was on the boat with  NOAA oceanographic scientist Ryan Nichols and  Mills Dunlap, skilled fisherman.  They both patiently taught me how to fish.  Wave conditions ranged from 4-6 feet which made for being a bit unstable on my feet.  Ryan has perfected his fishing technique, tying 4 fish hooks on each line, looking like a Christmas tree with each hook being a colorful ornament.   This allowed us to catch multiple fish on each line. Today’s operation was to fish as close to the Bot Cam, a remote underwater camera as possible.  Scientists hope to use the video tape fish behavior in the benthicpelagic range which is 100-200 fathoms deep/600-1200 feet.

The Bot Cam uses a tethered camera that is later released to float to the surface, and using acoustics a.k.a. sonar readings, scientists Ryan Nichols, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center , Meagan Sundberg, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research of the University of Hawaii, and Jamie Barlow , Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, will collect samples of fish at selected sites during the cruise.

The Botcam is being deployed off the side of the Sette with the help of Dr. Kobayashi and crew members Kelson and Johnathan.

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Scientists are researching fish behavior, competition, species interactions, throughout the water column.  Specifically they are looking at the bottom fish society, scientists refer the it as the “complex” and how they relate to each other socially, behavioral, clues into their social structure,  eating behaviors, predator/prey avoidance, response to fishing gear presence.  Looking at dominate and non-dominate fish behavior. Bottom fish snapper species and predator fish, Jack, a very dominate fish.  The Bot Cam reminds me of the behavior when you set up a bird feeder.

The fish were certainly biting.  The two small boats caught approx. 40 fish that day.

So far, it has been a very productive trip, and they have  caught  many snapper fish:

Four species of  snapper have been collected which include:

genus Pristipomoides,  Aphareus rutilans (long jaw job fish/lehi)

Furca (rusty jobfish)

Etelis (ruby snapper/onaga(Japanese)

two  species of tuna  in the Scombridae family

yellow fin tuna, and dog-tooth tuna

four species of grouper:

Total number of catch: 224

Teacher at Sea, Jennifer Fry examines and measures fish onboard NOAA ship Oscar Elton Sette
Teacher at Sea, Jennifer Fry measures and processes fish off the coast of American Samoa.

Once on the Sette I joined the scientists as they processed today’s catch.  Forming a production line we worked to measure each fish including:

    • weight in kilograms
    • length using centimeters
    • determine if the fish is male or female by extracting the fishes’ gonad organ
  • harvest the odilith, ear bone, that helps determine the fish’s age. Extracting the ear bone helps scientists determine the fish’s age by reading the rings much like a trunk of a tree.

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All in all there was “Lots of sun and tons of fun and many fish.”

New Vocabulary:

cox·swain (k k s n, -sw n ). n. 1. A person who usually steers a ship’s boat and has charge of its crew

Boatswain or bosun (both /ˈbsən/): A non-commissioned officer responsible for the sails, ropes, rigging and boats on a ship who issues “piped” commands to seamen.

 small boats – A NOAA vessel used for a variety of scientific study such at fishing, plankton tows, researching protected species, cetacean acoustic studies, and A.U.V., autonomous underwater vehicle maneuvers

Tropical Birds Seen:

Red footed booby

Shearwater

Stormy petrols

Tropicbird

Fairy duster

Jennifer Fry: March 9, 2012, Oscar Elton Sette

NOAA Teacher at Sea
Jennifer Fry
Onboard NOAA Ship, Oscar Elton Sette
March 12 – March 26, 2012

Mission: Fisheries Study
Geographical area of cruise: American Samoa
Date: March 9, 2012

Personal Log

Pago Pago

With the morning light, the island’s landscape came into view.  Looking back toward land was the single road, a variety of buildings, consisting of numerous churches, restaurants, schools, and hotels.  I have come to learn that each small village has its own church and outdoor meeting hall.  Behind the buildings the topography extended upward forming a steep hillside covered with green, lush tropical plants, including a variety of palms and fruit trees laden with mangoes and papayas.

After a hearty Samoan breakfast with ten of the scientists that will be on the research vessel, we met with representatives from the local marine sciences community at the American Samoan government building.  Chickens, chickens, and a small clutch of baby chickens happily pecked on the lawn in front of the building which put a smile on my face.

These chickens found their home in front of the Government Building of Pago Pago, American Samoa.

Scientific Log

The chief scientist, Dr. Donald Kobayashi, began by introducing the team of scientists and gave a brief overview of the upcoming mission aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette.

The variety of investigations that will be conducted during these next 2 weeks which include:.

  1. Midwater Cobb trawls:  Scientists, John  Denton, American Museum of Natural History, and Aimiee Hoover, acoustics technician , Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research of the University of Hawaii, will conduct nighttime tows that will focus on epipelagic and pelagic juvenile reef fish and bottomfish species.
  1. Bot Cam: Using a tethered camera that is later released to float to the surface, and using acoustics–a.k.a. sonar readings–scientists Ryan Nichols, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center , Meagan Sundberg, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research of the University of Hawaii, and Jamie Barlow , Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, will collect samples of fish at selected sites during the cruise.
  1. CTD experiments: “Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth.”   At predetermined locations scientists Evan Howell, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, and Megan Duncan, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research at the University of Hawaii, will collect water samples called “profiles” taken of the water column at different depths.  This data is very important in determining the nutrients, chlorophyll levels, and other chemical make-up of the ocean water.
  1. Plankton tows:  Using plankton and Neuston nets, scientists Louise Giuseffi, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, and Emily Norton,University of Hawaii, Manoa, Biological Oceanography department, will conduct day and nighttime plankton tows focusing on plankton and microplastic marine debris.  Scientists will be  looking at a specific species of plankton called the copepod.  This study will also be collecting microplastic pieces, some of which are called “nurdles” which are small plastic pellets used in the manufacturing process. Unfortunately most plastic debris will never degrade and just break into smaller and smaller pieces potentially working their way into the food web, making this research and its findings very important to environmental studies.
  1. Handline fishing using a small boat, the Steel Toe: Scientists Ryan Nichols, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, Meagan Sundberg, Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research at the University of Hawaii, and Jamie Barlow, Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center, will conduct daily fishing expeditions obtaining scientific data on bottomfish, grouper and snapper species.   They will be focusing on life history factors including age, growth, male/female ratios, length and weight.  This is very exciting research since the last data collected from this region was from the 1970s and 80s.

I am very excited and fortunate to be part of this important scientific research project, and the significant data collected by the scientists.

Did You Know?
American Samoa pronunciation: The first syllable of “Samoa” is accented.
Pago Pago (capital of American Samoa): The “a”  pronunciation uses a soft “an” sound as in “pong.”

Animals Seen Today
Frigate birds
Common Myna
“Flying Foxes” Fruit bats
Kingfisher
Brown tree frog
Dogs, various
Chickens, various