NOAA Teacher At Sea
Aboard NOAA Ship Nancy Foster
September 14 – 27, 2014
Mission: Fish Tagging
Geographical area of cruise: Tortugas Ecological Reserve North & South sections: Tortugas Bank
Date: September 17, 18, 19, 2014
Weather, September 19, 2014 20:00 hours
Latitude 24° 35’ 07’’N Longitude 83° 01’ 09’’W
Broken clouds, clear.
Wind speed 7 knots.
Air Temperature: 29° Celsius (84° Fahrenheit)
Sea Water Temperature: 30.2° Celsius (86.7°Fahrenheit)
CLICKING ON THE SMALL PHOTOS WILL ENLARGE THEM & REVEAL HIDDEN TEXT.
We did not have great success with the shrimp bait. Guess these fish prefer their shrimp au naturel where as we gave them cooked, peeled and deveined shrimp. This morning we set out again in the small boats so the divers could re-bait the traps with squid instead.
Safety on the ship
Safety always comes first on the Nancy Foster. We have had briefings on safety, we wear hard hats while the cranes are moving, we wear closed toe shoes (except when in the shower) and we have had fire drills & first aid emergency drills. Today we had an abandon ship drill. First we each arrived at our muster stations (our assigned place to meet), then we climbed into our Survival Suits (nicknamed the Gumby suit.) This is made of very thick neoprene, probably 7-9 millimeters thick, and covers you from head to toe to fingertips. It is meant to keep you safe from hypothermia if you were overboard for a long period of time.
After wriggling back out, we went to find our assigned life raft. There are 6 rafts which each hold 25 people. There is enough bunk space on the ship for 37 people, so there are plenty of life rafts for all. Three rafts sit on each side of the ship so even if the ship was under water listing to one side, we could still access enough rafts for all.
In addition to the Survival Suit, Nick thought he would be safer being more visible so he wore a few extra items to ensure his safety!
Dancing with the Remotely Operated Vehicle
Part of each day has been spent looking underwater with the Remotely Operated Vehicle piloted by Lance Horn and Jason White from the University of North Carolina at Wilmington (yet another partner in this 14-day collaboration)
I will be sharing lots more information about the ROV in an upcoming post. Today I wanted you to see who else besides scientists are curious about the ROV (the large instrument with the yellow top you see in the video here)
We checked traps again this morning and had success with the squid. The dive teams will perform surgery today! The surgery only takes about 10 minutes, which may seem quick, but since they are underwater at a depth of about 100 feet, they must work quickly so as to not run out of their air supply. One scientist (usually Paul Barbera, FWC Associate Scientist – who they call the Fish Whisperer) will hold the fish steady while another will make the incision, insert the acoustic transmitter and then stitch up the incision. The stitches will dissolve in about a week or two. The acoustic transmitter (fish tag) will last 2-5 years. Life span of the tag is determined by it’s battery life. The smaller tags (for smaller fish) can last 2 years and the larger tags (for larger fish) will work for about 5 years. This allows the scientists to gather information on the same fish for multiple years, giving them a really good idea of their seasonality – or the fish’s movements between different areas, both protected an unprotected.
This footage was not shot during our cruise, but Ben Binder, FWC Biological Scientist, shared this video with me describing the surgery process. Here you will see two scientists who are aboard the Nancy Foster with me. Paul is securing the fish and Mike McCallister, FWC Biological Scientist, is performing the surgery. They are working with a Lion Fish here.
Placing the fish tag is just one part of the process of collecting the data the scientists are hoping to gather. The second part is to place an instrument which can read the acoustic transmitter as it swims past (within the fish of course!) Danielle Morley, FWC Assistant Research Scientist, and I worked to prepare some previously used acoustic receivers. Each of the 90 receivers the FWC have placed in the waters off the Florida Keys costs about $2500. Therefore, used receivers are reprogrammed, repainted with anti-fouling paint and used again. Anti-fouling paint makes it very difficult for animals like barnacles to build their calcium carbonate skeletons on the receiver’s exposed top. The receivers are made up of a hydrophone, a circuit board and a battery. I replaced the batteries and cleaned up the O rings. The O rings are extremely important as they ensure the capsule is completely water-proof and can be submerged in ocean water for a year at a time.
After a year, the batteries need replaced and the data needs retrieved. Today, the divers will retrieve 6 acoustic receivers on Riley’s Hump and replace them with those we reprogrammed. This is footage of our divers (Jeff, Sean and Colin) making the swap. Thanks to Cammy Clark, the Miami Herald reporter, who dived down about 100 feet to capture the action.
Over the last 5 days, there have been 65 dives and 3 surgeries performed. The scientists deem this as very successful trip. Additionally, all divers returned safely to the ship after each dive! This morning the divers are retrieving the traps, which like the receiver stands are allowed by a special permit from the FKNMS. Even if conditions did not allow us to get the traps and they needed to stay at the bottom, no fish would be caught for very long. Each trap is closed with a zinc clip that will dissolve after a week or two.
The large fish we are trapping can easily stay down in a trap that long. But today, the weather allowed us to retrieve the traps.
Along with the traps, Ben and Ariel brought five Lion Fish Pterois volitans back up.
Lion Fish are not naturally found here. They are native to the Indo-Pacific. It has not been determined exactly how they got to the area but they are very popular for home aquariums. However, since they are voracious predators, after eating all their other aquarium fish, people have been dumping them in the Atlantic Ocean for decades. It was decided that efforts to eradicate the species would be futile since they are prolific breeders, have no natural predators and have been found in extremely deep waters where it would be unfeasible to reach them. Instead, there are large efforts to manage their populations in certain areas.
One does need to be extremely careful as they have venomous spines – 13 along the top (dorsal spines) and 3 along the bottom (anal spines) The pain they inflict & the reaction people can have when stung sounds very similar to the bark scorpion.
I found out they are SUPER tasty! Especially since Bob Burroughs, 2nd Cook and Lito LLena, Chief Steward prepared them as ceviche – my favorite.
In the afternoon we got a special treat. We left the waters of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and ferried over to Fort Jefferson at the Dry Tortugas National Park for a tour and some snorkeling. One can only reach the fort by boat or sea plane. It was built between the years 1846 and 1875 as a way to claim the main shipping channel between the Gulf of Mexico, the western Caribbean and the Atlantic Ocean. It never saw battle, mostly because it’s fire power was so massive that no one wanted to go up against it!
Even though I have been able to travel out into the open ocean on the small boats each day, it was SO GOOD to actually get into the water and snorkel around. So many amazing things to see and take photos of.
There were many jelly fish (mostly Moon Jellies) and we all got stung a lot, but the underwater scenery was well worth it.
Bonus Points – make a COMMENT and tell me how the LION FISH and the GILA MONSTER are similar!
Answer to my last post: It was a DOLPHIN. The Common Bottlenose Tursiops truncatus
Also, the definition of RECIPROCITY is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit.
I have been so impressed with the seamless collaboration between the crew & science team as well as the different agencies within the science team. Everyone gives of themselves so freely for the main goal of the scientific mission.